Day 1 :
Dimerond Technologies, USA
Time : 09:00-09:40
Dieter M Gruen is an Argonne Distinguished Fellow, Emeritus and President of Dimerond Technologies, LLC’s. He has completed his BS cum laude and MS degrees at Northwestern University and his PhD in Chemical Physics at University of Chicago. He had a distinguished research career involving several disciplines of material science relevant to fission and fusion energy.
With increasing energy and environment concerns, how to efficiently convert and store energy has become a critical topic. Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and batteries, have been proven to be the most effective energy conversion and storage technologies for practical application. Supercapacitors and lithium-based batteries are particularly promising because of their excellent power density and energy density. However, further development of these energy storage devices is hindered by their poor electrode performance. The carbon materials in supercapacitors and batteries, such as graphite, activated carbons and various nanostructured carbon materials (ordered porous carbon, CNT, graphene etc.), are often derived from nonrenewable resources under relatively harsh environments. Naturally abundant biomass with hierarchically porous architecture is a green, alternative carbon source with many desired properties for supercapacitors and lithium-based batteries. Recently, we converted cotton, banana peel, and recycled paper into highly porous, conductive activated carbon scaffolds for advanced energy storage applications via a low-cost and high throughput manufacturing process. The activated carbon scaffolds were further coated with active materials such as NiCo2O4, NiO, Co-Al layered double hydroxides (Co-Al LDHs), Ni2S, sulfur nanoparticles, and graphene to enhance their electrochemical properties. The biomass-derived activated carbon materials are effective in improving supercapacitor’s energy density and in blocking the dissolution of reaction intermediates in lithium sulfur batteries. Especially, the biomass-derived carbons provide scaffolds for hosting sulfur in lithium sulfur batteries to manipulate the “shuttle effects” of polysulfides and improve the utilization of sulfur. In particular, the activated carbon textiles (derived from cotton textiles) are flexible and conductive, and an ideal substrate for constructing flexible supercapacitors, batteries, and self-powered flexible solar cell/supercapacitor (or battery) systems. Using biomasses is definitely the right track towards making renewable carbon materials for future energy storage devices.
Hubei University, China
Keynote: Semiconductors and semiconductor ionic hetero-structure composites for next generation energy conversion technology
Time : 09:40-10:20
Bin Zhu received MSc degree from University of Science and Technology of China in 1987 and PhD from Chalmers University of Technology, Physics and Engineering Physics, Sweden in 1995. During October 1995 to December 1997, he worked as Postdoc at Uppsala University, Ångström Laboratory. Since 1998, he moved to KTH and in 1999 became Associate Professor in Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, and now in Department of Energy Technology, KTH. He is a Visiting Professor at Aalto University and Nanyang Technological University as well as he acted as Guest Professor and Professor at several Chinese universities to co-supervise research projects and PhD students. From 2018, he has been appointed as Visiting Professor, an honorary appointment at Loughborough University, UK.
Studies on ionic nobility in semiconductor lead to new generation electron and semiconductor devices, e.g., Displays, valve switches, new memory devices, superconducting devices, super magnetic devices, electro chemical transistors, low-power electronics and novel sensing energy devices etc., but ionic properties and transports missing that has the same or more important significance than ionic effects on electrons, because the electronic effect on ions and movement to be widely applied for new generation energy technologies. Over hundred years, people have designed and looked for ionic conductors and ionic conductivity only focusing on so called ionic materials or conductors, but challenge unsolved, typically, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which needs high operational temperature in excess of 700°C to operate properly, dominated the SOFC technology over hundred years, not yet commercially. The traditional ionic electrolyte, e.g., YSZ can be now replaced by semiconductor and semiconductor ionic properties and materials we have developed to demonstrate higher device performance at temperatures well below 600°C and much simpler technology, e.g., single component fuel cell to replace traditional anode, electrolyte and catholic three components fuel cell technology. Turning to semiconductors, to develop semiconductor ionic property and conductivity, we can reach ever higher ion conductivity which has demonstrated better fuel cell performance and simpler technology. Semiconductor and semiconductor-ionic hetero structure composites are leading to next generation energy devices.
University of Oldenburg, Germany
Time : 10:20-11:20
Gerd Kaupp has completed his PhD at Würzburg University and Postdoctoral studies from Iowa State University, Lausanne University and Freiburg University. He held a Full-Professorship till 2005 in Oldenburg, Germany and he privately continues his research on wasteless solid-state chemistry temperature-controlled with 100% yield since 1984, AFM on rough surfaces since 1988, the non-stochastic but versatile and better resolving sub-diffraction limit microscopy for unstained non-fluorescing materials of all types (resolution <10 nm, since 1995), and (nano) indentations (since 2000). In the latter field, he is still urging ISO (NIST) to correct their 50 years old standards for conformity with physics. He has published more than 300 papers in renowned journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several scientific journals.
Common indentation analyses (ISO and ASTM standardized) suffer from iterations, polynomials and approximations. However, correct physics on the basis of elementary mathematics avoids iterations and violations of the energy law for hardness and modulus. The new physically founded laws FN=0.8 k h3/2 and Wapplied/Windent =5/4 apply to nano, micro and macro depth sensing indentations. Importantly, they detect phase changes under load and allow for the arithmetic treatment for single or successive phase transformations, surface layer effects and correct adsorption energies. Thus, the first physical hardness H, stiffness/indentation moduli (these are not "Young's moduli"), indentation works, activation energies and phase transformation energies are directly obtained, simply by application of the basic physically founded equations that avoid the unfortunate common energy law violations. Non-steadiness kinks (in the linear h3/2 plots) and any deviations from the precise 5/4 ratio (integration of the smooth appearing loading curves over one or more phase transition onsets is not allowed) prove phase change (s) under load. For example, five successive phase changes to reveal six different polymorphs of NaCl up to 50 N load (corresponding to HV5) from depth-sensing indentations will be presented and analysed. In addition to fcc and bcc, theoretical predictions published three new polymorph structures and there is the possibility of twins and amorphous phases. The undeniable half-page physical deductions of the two basic formulas will be presented and discussed as the derived formulas for the mentioned and further mechanical applications. This is not only of academic interest, but materials' properties must be correctly and reliably described, and technical materials must withstand pressure upon use without failing. The latter are at risk when phase change onset pressures remain undetected, because of the formed interfaces between different polymorphs as sites for nucleation of cracks. Highly resolved (5000X) 3D-microscopy reveals details of crack nucleation. The non-detection of of phase changes is the main objection against the reliability of non-depth-sensing Vickers, Brinell, Rockwell, etc. hardness characterizations of daily life technical materials (not withstanding their always similar standard plates that equally undergo the undetected phase changes). The neglecting of always several undetected phase changes misses the most relevant properties with creation of high common risks. Furthermore, indentation measurements gain enormously in precision, because invalid single measurements can be directly excluded when they do not concur with the undeniable physical FN µ h3/2 law's linear correlation with >3 or >4 nines, due to local imperfections, or skew, or too close to interface or to borderline indentations. The safety issues also for all the numerous applications that derive from ISO H and Er are evident and largely unexplored.