Day 1 :
Teikyo University Medical School, Japan
Keynote: Direct Recording of Myosin head Power and Recovery Strokes in Hydrated Myosin Filaments Provides Evidence Against the Swinging Lever Arm Mechanism in Muscle Contraction
Time : 09:30-09:55
Haruo Sugi graduated from postgraduate School in the University of Tokyo, Japan, with a PhD degree in 1962, and was appointed instructor in the Department of Physiology in the University of Tokyo. From 1965 to 1967, he worked at Columbia University as a research associate, and at the National Institutes of Health as a visiting scientist. He was a professor and Chairman in the Department of Physiology, Teikyo University Medical School, Japan, from 1973 to 2004, when he became an emeritus professor. Sugi was also chairman of the muscle committion in the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) from 1998 to 2008.
Muscle contraction results from relative sliding between actin and myosin filaments, which in turn is caused by cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin head extending from myosin filaments and active sites on actin filaments. A myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (COD), and lever arm (LD) domains, and connected to myosin filament backbone via subfragment-2. Based on crystallographic and electron microscopic studies on static structures of myosin heads and acto-myosin complex, it has been proposed that myosin head exerts power stroke by active rotation of CAD around CD, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. This mechanism is called “ swinging lever arm mechanism”, and now appears in every textbook as a dogma explaining molecular mechanism of muscle contraction. Using the gas environmental chamber, in which hydrated biomolecules can keep their function in the electron microscope, we succeeded in recording ATP-induced power and recovery strokes of myosin heads, which are position-marked with two different antibodies, attaching to junctional peptide between 50k and 20k segments of myosin heavy chain in CAD(antibody 1), and to reactive lysine residue in COD (antibody 2), respectively. Although antibody 1 covers two main myosin-binding sites on actin to inhibit formation of actin-myosin linkages, it has no effect on both Ca2+-activated muscle fiber contraction and in vitro actin-myosin sliding. On the other hand, antibody 2 shows no effect on muscle fiber contraction, but completely inhibits in vitro actin-myosin sliding. These findings, together with our success in recording power stroke of myosin heads position-marled with antibodies 1 and 2, constitute evidence against the dogma (or textbook view) that (1) during muscle contraction, myosin heads do not pass through rigor configuration, and (2) muscle contraction does not results from active rotation of CAD around COD.
Recent Publications :
- Sugi H et al. (1997) Dynamic electron microscopy of ATP-induced myosin head movement in living muscle thick filaments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 4378―4382.
- Sugi H et al. (2008) Direct demonstration of the cross-bridge recovery stroke in muscle thick filaments in aqueous solution by using the hydration chamber. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 17396―17401.
- Sugi H et al. (2014) Definite differences between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction as revealed using antibodies to myosin head. PLoS ONE 9: e93272.
- Sugi H et al. (2015) Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments. Sci Rep 5: 15700.
- Sugi H, Chaen S (2016) Evidence against the swinging lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction based on the effect of antibodies to myosin head. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 1000377.
Leszek A. Dobrzanski
Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Design and Production ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice, Poland
Keynote: The skeleton microporous materials with coatings inside the pores for medical and dental applications
Time : 09:55-10:20
Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland and a Supervisory Board Chairman, Project Manager and Principal Investigator in the Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Design and Production ASKLEPIOS Ltd in Gliwice, Poland. He is a Doctor Honoris Causa of the Universities in Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine. He is a Fellow of the Materials Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences PAS and the President of the Metallic Materials Section of this Committee. He is a Vice President and a Fellow of the Academy of Engineers in Poland. He is a foreign Fellow of the Ukrainian Academy of Engineering Sciences and the Slovak Academy of Engineering Sciences. He is the President of the World Academy of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, and a President of the International Association of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering and Open Access Library
A significant and costly problem of the modern medicine is the necessity to replace or supplement organs or tissues to prevent the biological and social degradation of patients and to restore their living functions, resulting from a growing number of cases of organ or tissue loss or damage in the human population due to post-injury or post-resection losses as well as those originating from the operative treatment of cancerous tumours or inflammation processes and as a result of the work, traffic and sports accidents. The own works covered by this article form part of completely original and pioneer research over the development of original author’s concepts concerning the development of original hybrid clinical prosthetics and implantation techniques in the area of medicine and regenerative dentistry and tissue engineering methods allowing for the natural growth of living tissues into microporous parts of implanted medical devices. An engineering manifestation of such concepts is the creation of a new generation of original hybrid microporous high-strength engineering materials ensuring the development of original hybrid constructions of a new generation of personalised implant-scaffolds and tissue scaffolds. The most important is to develop an original hybrid technology of fabrication of a new generation of custom implant-scaffolds and tissue scaffolds using skeleton titanium or Ti6AlV4 alloy microporous materials manufactured by Selective Laser Sintering. They exhibit porosity and the related mechanical properties dependent on the manufacturing conditions, including mainly laser power, laser beam diameter and distance between laser beams and distance between laser remelting paths. In order to ensure conditions for the nesting and proliferation of living tissues in the micropores of the created porous microskeletons, tests were performed of the deposition of the internal surface of micropores with TiO2 and Al2O3 layers by ALD technology supporting the growth of living tissues in a microporous bonding zone with scaffolds or implant-scaffolds created from engineering materials.
Recent Publications :
L.A. Dobrzański, A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz (eds.), Microporous and solid metallic materials for medical application, Open Access Library VII/1 (2017) in print (in Polish).
2. L.A. Dobrzański, Overview and general ideas of the development of constructions, materials, technologies and clinical applications of scaffolds engineering for regenerative medicine, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering 69/2 (2014) 53-80.
3. L.A. Dobrzański, Applications of newly developed nanostructural and microporous materials in biomedical, tissue and mechanical engineering, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering 76/2 (2015) 53-114.
4. L.A. Dobrzański, A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz, P. Malara, T.G. Gaweł, L.B. Dobrzański, A. Achtelik-Franczak, Implanto-skafold lub proteza elementów anatomicznych układu stomatognatycznego oraz twarzoczaszki, Patent Application P 414423 z 19.10.2015.
5. L.A. Dobrzański, A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz, P. Malara, T.G. Gaweł, L.B. Dobrzański, A. Achtelik-Franczak, Implanto-skafold kostny, Patent Application P 414424, 19.10.2015.
Holon Institute of Technology, Israel
Keynote: Single wall and multiwall WS2 nanotubes’ synthesis and characterization - the update
Time : 10:20-10:45
Dr. Alla Zak is a Head of the Laboratory for Synthesis and Investigation of Nanomaterials and Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Science in the Holon Institute of Technology, Israel. She is also a Scientific Adviser in the Department of Materials and Interfaces in Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel. She has made a major contribution to the study of the growth mechanism and scaling-up of the fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles of WS2 and the inorganic nanotubes (INT) of WS2 and MoS2. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are now fully commercialized as superior solid lubricants. Furthermore, she was among the early researchers to show the importance of the WS2 nanoparticles and nanotubes as reinforcing elements in polymer nanocomposites.
The discovery of inorganic nanotubes (INT) of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2 and WS2) more than two decades ago opened the new research field in a solid state chemistry and in nanomaterials science. However, wide investigation of their properties and applications require the preparation of pure phase powders and in significant amounts. Careful study of the growth mechanism of WS2 multiwall nanotubes (MWINT) resulted in pure phase INTs production and suggested their simple scaling up. The obtained nanotubes are of 30–170 nm in diameter and 5-25 micron in length, of perfect crystallinity and needle-like morphology.
In addition, we have demonstrated that single- to triple-wall WS2 nanotubes (SWINT), of 3-7 nm in diameter and 20-200 nm in length, can be produced by high-power plasma irradiation of big multiwall WS2 nanotubes. Being of single or few-layers wall width these nanotubes promise to be of unusual electro-optical characteristics, which are under study nowadays. Very similar in their properties, the MoS2 and WS2 compounds demonstrate significantly different behavior during their synthesis from corresponding oxides through gas-phase high temperature reaction. Instability of precursor MoOx against reduction in high temperature processes makes INT-MoS2 production very challenging and become an obstacle in the way of their reproducible preparation during these years. Finally, we can report on the reproducible, catalyst free and aspect ratio controlled synthesis of MoS2 inorganic nanotubes (INT) from molybdenum oxide. The obtained nanotubes are of 10-20nm, 40-80 nm or 100-300 nm in diameter, and lengths - up to tens of microns, depends on reaction parameters. INT of MoS2 are both 40% lighter and 40% stronger compared to the analogous WS2 nanoparticles and hence more beneficial for tribological and composite applications. Being semiconductors, both MoS2 and WS2 nanotubes are good candidates for photovoltaics and optoelectronics.
Recent Publications :
- O. Grinberg, S. Deng, E. Zussman, T. Livneh and A. Zak, (2016), Raman scattering from single WS2 nanotubes embedded within stretched PVDF electrospun fibers , sub.
- K. R. O’Neal, J. G. Cherian, A. Zak, R. Tenne, Z. Liu, and J. L. Musfeldt, (2016), High Pressure Vibrational Properties of WS2 Nanotubes, Nano Lett. 16, 993−999.
- V. Brüser, R. Popovitz-Biro, A. Albu-Yaron, T. Lorenz, G. Seifert, R. Tenne and A. Zak, (2014), Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes, Inorganics 2, 177-190.
- A. Zak, L. Sallacan Ecker, N. Fleischer and R. Tenne, (2011), Large-Scale Synthesis of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes and their Dispersion, an Update, Sensors & Transducers Journal 12, 1-10.
5. M. Shneider, L. Rapoport, A. Moshkovich, H. Dodiuk, S. Kenig, R. Tenne and A. Zak, (2013), Tribological Performance of the Epoxy-Based Composite Reinforced by WS2 Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Nanotubes, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 2298–2306.
Networking and Refreshments Break 10:45-11:05 @ Academy Breakout Lounge
Breakout @ Edradour
- Track 4: Advancement in Nanomaterials Science And Nanotechnology
Track 5:Coatings and Surface Engineering
Track 7:Functional Materials
Location: Balvenie Glenmorangie
Tohoku University, Japan
RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Tohoku University, Japan
Title: Evaluation of Atomic Scale Damages of Advanced Materials Based on the Order of Atom Arrangement
Prof. Hideo Miura has received his PhD from Tohoku University, Japan. He had worked for Hitachi Ltd., Japan for 20 years as a Chief Researcher of mechanical reliability of various products and moved to Tohoku University in 2003. He is the director and Professor of Fracture and Reliability Research Institute. His main research topic now is prediction and prevention of fracture of advanced functional materials and thin-film devices. He has published more than 200 technical papers in the field of mechanical reliability of various materials and thin-film devices, and obtained more than 200 patents all over the world. He also has been serving as an organizer of various international conferences.
Recently, mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials have been found to vary drastically depending on their micro texture. The crystallinity of grain boundaries was found to dominate both their mechanical and electrical properties and the long-term reliability. This is because various defects such as strain, vacancies, impurities, and dislocations easily concentrate around grain boundaries and thus, degrade the quality of atomic configuration in grains and grain boundaries. In this talk, a grain boundary is defined by volumetric transition area between two grains, though it has been defined as a line interface between nearby grains. The quality of grain boundaries is independent of crystallographic orientation of nearby grains. The diffusion of component elements is remarkably dominated by the local quality of grain boundaries. The degradation of materials mainly starts to occur around grain boundaries with low crystallinity and atomic diffusion, such as strain-induced anisotropic diffusion and electromigration, is accelerated drastically along the poor-quality grain boundaries. The initial micro texture of various heat-resistant alloys has been found to degrade under operating conditions of advanced high efficient thermal power plants based on this strain-induced accelerated diffusion of component elements. The quality of thin-film interconnections in advanced semiconductor devices has been decreased under operation by electro-and stress-induced migration of component elements. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the crystallinity of advanced materials quantitatively for assuring safe and reliable operation of various products. Crystallinity of grain boundaries can be evaluated quantitatively by applying electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) method. The order of atomic alignment in the observed area is analyzed by the sharpness of Kikuchi lines obtained from the observed area. Various materials properties vary drastically depending on the order of atomic alignment, in particular, in grain boundaries. Both fluctuation and degradation of various properties of materials such as heat-resistant alloys and thin films are investigated from the viewpoint of the crystallinity of grains and grain boundaries.
Recent Publications :
- Murakoshi T, Shinozaki T, Suzuki K, and Miura H (2016) Initial Degradation Process of Heat-resistant Materials Based on the Change of Crystallinity of Grains and Grain Boundaries, Procedia Structural Integrity 2, 1383-1390.
- Murakoshi T, Ochi M, Suzuki K, and Miura H (2015) Elucidation of the High Cycle Fatigue Damage Mechanism of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel at Elevated Temperature, Proc. of ASME IMECE2015, No.53341, 1-6.
- Suzuki K, Murakoshi T, and Miura H (2015) Crsytallinity Degradation Caused by Alloying Elements Diffusion During Creep of Ni-base Superalloy, Proc. of ASME IMECE2015, No.53341, 1−6 .
- Ohnishi M, Suzuki K, and Miura H (2015) Effects of uniaxial compressive strain on the electronictransport properties of zigzag carbon nanotubes”, Nano Research, DOI10.1007/s12274-016-10220-0.
- Murata N, Suzuki K, and Miura H, (2012) Quantitative Evaluation of the Crystallinity of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Materials, Proc. of ASME IMECE 2012, No. 87426, 1-6.
Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Austria
Title: Thermokinetic modeling and simulation of complex phase transformations in the framework of advanced functional materials
Dr. Erwin Povoden-Karadeniz holds a tenure-track position at the Institute of Materials Science and Technology at TU Vienna, where he is in charge of the Computational Materials Engineering group. After receiving his doctor´s degree at ETH Zurich in 2008, he developed multi-component thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases for MatCalc in the group of Prof. Kozeschnik at TU Wien and continued his work on the defect evolution in functional oxides. Currently, in an ongoing collaboration with the Electrochemical Materials Institute at ETH Zurich, this knowledge is applied for simulations of thermochemical solar to fuel conversion efficiencies of perovskite-structured catalysts. He determined thermodynamic and kinetic properties of metastable early stages of precipitation by employing density functional theory and thermokinetic assessment of phase stabilities. This work has been awarded with the best Calphad paper award in 2014. He has reviewed numerous sumitted journal papers and will host the Calphad conference in 2026.
At present, computational materials engineering is a desired and propagated aim of academia and industry. The usability of computational thermodynamics for physically-based simulations of materials behaviour during technological processing and applications requires a step ahead of classical equilibrium thermodynamic phase descriptions. Theoretic requirements for successful predictions of complex phase evolutions during technological treatments, and related relevant properties, are discussed for two selective, promising functional materials groups. The principles of defect modelling and associated efficiency calculations of complex catalytic materials are discussed for multicomponent nonstoichiometric rare-earth based perovskite oxides. In the functional metals field, simulations of thermokinetic evolution of metastable precipitates in Ti-Ni based shape memory alloys as function of thermo-mechanical processing is presented. Potentials and limitations of integrated thermokinetic simulations of phase transformations are highlighted
S.N.Bose National Centre For Basic Sciences, India
Title: Evaluation of sputtered PZT thin films on Ti-substrates upon re-crystallization with a thin Pb-overcoat
Ankita Ghatak ,National Post doctoral Fellow has her expertise in growth of nanostrcutured binary as well as complex oxides. She has grown aligned 1-D nanostructured binary oxide which has a strong influence in the field of applications. She has a hands on expertise on microstructural analysis of complex oxide nanostructures that has provided up a new field of research from technological point of view. Her interface analysis of complex materials with substrates has open up a challenging field in the device fabrication process. She in her publications has tremendously contributed about the benefit of creating atomically sharp interfaces that will enhance the future device performances. A new approach in looking into atomic columns of manganite nanowires has been achieved by her recently through structural simulation.
Processing of thin lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films on metallic substrates has several advantages such as high frequency operation, low electrical series resistance, low dielectric loss and potential for embedded capacitor systems. As a suitable metal support for PZT films, titanium (Ti) seems to be the most natural choice as it posses high melting point, the thermal expansion coefficient of Ti matches closely to that of PZT and permits good adhesion with low reactivity. However, ferroelectric and piezoelectric responses of PZT films on Ti substrates are found to be not that encouraging. Presence of a non-ferroelectric pyrochlore/ fluorite (Py/Fl) phase on the surface of the PZT film is believed to be the primary cause for poor electrical performance.
In this work, effect of re-crystallization of PZT films with a thin Pb-overcoat has been investigated though structural, morphological, compositional and electrical studies. Sputter deposited PZT thin films on Ti-substrates are found to contain a Pb-deficient and Zr-enriched Py/Fl phase of type Pb2(Zr,Ti)2O6 on the surface of the PZT film. Re-crystallization of these PZT films with a thin lead (Pb) overcoat improves the degree of crystallization, morphology and dielectric/ ferroelectric properties of the films by converting the top Pb-lean and Zr-rich Py/Fl phase into perovskite phase. Structural changes that occur in PZT films upon re-crystallization with a Pb-overcoat have been correlated with ferroelectric characteristics of the PZT films
Recent Publications :
- Ghatak A, Roy Moulik S, Ghosh B(2016) Pulsed laser assisted growth of aligned nanowires of WO3 and their microstructural analysis. RSC ADVANCES 6:31705-31716.
- Roy Moulik S, Ghatak A, Ghosh B (2016) Study of surface chemistry and microstructure of TiO2 nanostructures on Pt/Si wafers and FTO glass substrates: a comparative approach. Surface Science 651:175-181.
- Datta S, Ghatak A, Ghosh B (2016) Controlled hydrothermal growth of single crystalline nanowires and related nanostructures of perovskite oxide manganites (La1-xAxMnO3) with adaptable stoichiometry and morphology. Journal of Material Science 51:9679-9695.
- H. Debnath G, Chakraborty A, Ghatak A, Mandal M, Mukherjee P (2015) Controlled Terbium(III) Luminescence in Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles: An Assessment of Competitive Photophysical Processes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119:24132-24141.
- Ghatak A, Debnath G, Mandal M, Mukherjee P (2015)Lanthanide Cation Induced Tuning of Surface Capping Properties in Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles: An Infrared Absorption Study. RSC ADVANCES 5:32920-32932.
Barnali Ghosh (Saha)
S.N.Bose National Centre For Basic Sciences, India
Title: Modification of ground state property on size reduction to 1D
Dr. Barnali Ghosh Saha), is now a Scientist-E, (Associate Professor) in the Department fo Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences and Head of the department of Technical Research facility programme. She is a member of Indian Physics Association. She got Ph.D degree in Physic award in 1998. She got a research Award in Woman Scientist programme in 2003 and 2008 from “Department of Science and Technology, Government of India”. Currently Dr. Barnali Ghosh (Saha)’s researches focus on experimental condensed matter Physics and Nano Science and nanotechnology, Physics of transition metal oxides mainly perovskite oxides. She is also working on fabrication of single nanowire based devices using different lithographic techniques like, e-beam and focused ion beam techniques and transport measurement on single nanowire. She also does cross sectional transmission electron microscopy related work using focused ion beam based techniques.
Nanowires, because of their unique one-dimensional like structural characteristics and size effects, exhibit many novel physical properties, that are different from their bulk counterparts. Main motivation of our investigation is to show, how size reduction affects competing interactions in complex oxides and thus, changes their ground state. Magnetization measurement on half doped manganite nanowire shows several magnetic transitions which are different from bulk. Understanding of magnetic transitions done using several experiments like magneto caloric study, Neutron diffraction study, which shows the presence of phase coexistence of magnetic phases (antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ).As the experiments are carried out on ensemble of nanowires, question may arise whether the phase coexistence observed in nanowires is due to size dispersion. To answer this question, instead of ensemble of nanowires, noise spectroscopy study of single nanowire (<50 nm) level is done to demonstrate how the noise spectroscopy can explain the magnetic transitions and phase separation.Field dependent as well as temperature dependent noise spectroscopy study was done on a single nano-wire to avoid the problems of size dispersion with the specific aim of corroborating the magnetic phase transitions as well as phase co-existence at a single NW level. I would discuss briefly on how to grow nano structured material and about the experiments both in ensemble and single nanowire of perovskite oxides. Experiments with single nanowires; mainly on fabrication of single nanowire based devices, using different lithographic techniques challenges would be discussed.
Recent Publications :
- Dutta S, Ghatak A, Ghosh B(2016) Manganite (La1-xAxMnO3; A = Sr, Ca) nanowires with adaptable stoichiometry grown by hydrothermal method: understanding of growth mechanism using spatially resolved techniques. J Mater Sci 51: 9679.
- Roy Moulik S, Ghatak A, Ghosh B (2016) Study of surface chemistry and microstructure of TiO2 nanostructures on Pt(111)/Si wafer and FTO glass substrates: A comparative approach, Surface Science651: 175-181.
- Roy Moulik S, Ghatak A, Ghosh B (2016) “Pulsed Laser assisted growth of aligned nanowires of WO3: role of interface with substrate. RSc Adv. 6: 31705.
- Dutta S, Samanta S, Ghosh B and Raychaudhuri A. K.(2014)” Low-frequency resistance fluctuations in a single nanowire (diameter 45nm) of a complex oxide and its relation to magnetic transitions and phase separation”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105: 073117.
- Roy Moulik S, Samanta S, Ghosh B (2014), “Photoresponse in thin films of WO3 grown by pulsed laser deposition”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104: 232017.
University of Exeter, United Kingdom
Title: Towards conductive textiles: coating polymeric fibres with graphene
Dr Ana Neves has a background in Chemistry, with a PhD awarded by IST, University of Lisbon, Portugal, for work carried out at the Solid State Group of ITN (Lisbon), on the molecular engineering of materials with magnetic and electric properties. Pursuing the path of applications, she joined the Organic Electronics group at INESC –Microsystems and Nanotechnology in Lisbon in 2013 as a postdoctoral researcher. Dr Neves joined the University of Exeter in October 2014 as an Associate Research Fellow under the project "Wearable light emitting transistors for future communication devices". Since October 2016 she is a Lecturer in Engineering, and currently holds a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship with project E-TEX "All-organic devices in textiles for wearable electronics". She is also a member of the Nano-Engineering, Science and Technology Group (NEST). Dr Neves research interests include applications of molecular materials, graphene and 2D materials in wearable electronic and sensing devices.
The concept of smart-textiles is witnessing a rapid development with recent advances in nanotechnology and materials engineering. Bearing in mind that the concept of textiles is much wider than clothes and garments, the potential is immense. While most current commercial applications rely on conventional hardware simply mounted onto fibres or fabrics, a new approach to e-textiles consisting in using functionalised textiles for several technological applications has the potential to change the paradigm of wearable electronics completely. Conducting fibres are an important component of any e-textile, nor only because they can be used as wiring for simple textile-based electronic component, but also because they can be used to build electronic devices directly on textile fibres. We have reported a new method to coat insulating textile fibres with monolayer graphene to make them conductive while preserving their appearance.  There are a number of factors that can greatly influence the sheet resistance achieved by graphene-coated textile fibres. In order to understand the influence of the topography of the fibres on the effectiveness of the graphene coating, an extensive study encompassing microscopy techniques like Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Thermal Microscopy, as well as Raman spectroscopy was performed.  This method has proven to be a versatile tool to achieve flexible, transparent and conducting fibres of different materials, sizes and shapes. The first applications of electronic devices built on such fibres are demonstrated, with an alternating current electroluminescent device, following previous work in our group on similar devices in flexible substrates.  This opens up the way for the realisation of wearable devices on textiles.
Recent Publications :
- Neves AIS, et al. (2017) Towards conductive textiles: coating polymeric fibres with graphene (accepted in May2017)
- Neves AIS, et al. (2015) Transparent conductive graphene textile fibres. Sci. Rep. 5:09855.
- Torres Alonso E, et al. (2015) Homogeneously bright, flexible, and foldable lighting devices with functionalized graphene electrodes. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8:16541-16545.
- Pinto RM, et al. (2015) Ultrasensitive organic phototransistors with multispectral response based on thin-film/single-crystal bilayer structures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107:223301.
- Pinto RM, et al. (2015) Effects of molecular stacking on exciton diffusion in crystalline organic semiconductors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37:7104-7110.
University of Rouen Normandie, France
Title: Functionalization of cocoa shell (CS) surfaces using nanoparticles and their application in CO2 storage
Julien Vieillard has his expertise in analytical chemistry in order to promote innovative material or new application. Thus, in the recent year, we tried to promote natural biowaste for CO2 sorption. Actually, our research are also focused to develop original optical, electrochemical biosensors and antibacterial treatment for metallic surface.
The aim of this research is to investigate how the covalent grafting of cocoa shell surface (CS) may improve its activity for the adsorption of CO2 at 20°C. Pure cocoa shells (CS) are agricultural by-products, usually inexpensive and abundantly available. They were functionalized by silanization and subsequent immobilization of cobalt nanoparticles (Co-NPs). In parallel, some carbon material was generated by hydrothermal treatment then post functionalized to increase the cocoa shell specific surface. Finally some core-shell nanoparticles have been also synthetized using cocoa shell as a core and zinc oxide as a shell, then some post-functionalization with nanoparticles insertion were added. The physical and thermal properties of the adsorbents like analysis stability, surface charge and morphology were investigated by FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET, DSC and zeta potentiometry techniques. The performance for the CO2 capture was investigated and the high adsorption capacity were mainly attributed to their original structure.
Recent Publications :
- F. Fioresi, J. Vieillard, R. Bargougui, N. Bouazizia, P. Nkuigue Fotsing, E. Djoufac Woumfo, N. Brun, N. Mofaddel, F. Le Derf, “Chemical modification of the cocoa shell surface using diazonium salts”, J. colloid and interface science, 2017
- N. Bouazizi, T. Boudharaa, R. Bargougui, J. Vieillard, S. Ammare, F. Le Derf, A. Azzouz, « Synthesis and properties of ZnO-HMD@ZnO-Fe/Cu core-shell as advanced material for hydrogen storage. », Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 491 (2017) 89–97.
- N. Bouazizi, S. Louhichi, R. Radhouane, J. Vieillard, F. Le Derf, A Azzouz, “CuO-loaded SBA-15@ZnO with improved electrical properties and affinity towards hydrogen”, Applied Surface Science, Volume 404, 2017, Pages 146-153
- T. Clamens, T. Rosay, A. Crépin, T.Grandjean, T. Kentache, J. Hardouin, P. Bortolotti, A. Neidig, M. Mooij, M. Hillion, J. Vieillard, P. Cosette, J. Overhage, F.O’Gara, E. Bouffartigues, A. Dufour, S. Chevalier, B. Guery, P. Cornelis, M. G. J. Feuilloley & O. Lesouhaitier, « The aliphatic amidase AmiE is involved in regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence », Scientific reports 7 (2017) in press
- N. Bouazizi, R. Bargougui, A. Benghnia, J. Vieillard, S. Ammar, A. Azzouz, “Synthesis of tin oxide activated by DAN grafting and Mo nanoparticles insertion for optoelectronics properties improvements. », RSC Advances, 2016, 6, 95405–95416,
- J. Vieillard, M. Hubert-Roux, F. Brisset, C. Soulignac, F. Fioresi, N. Mofaddel, S. Morin-Grognet, C. Afonso, F. Le Derf, « Atmospheric Solid Analysis Probe-Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry: An Original Approach to Characterize Grafting on Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Surfaces. », Langmuir 31 (2015) 31,13138–13144
- T. Rosay, A. Bazire, S. Diaz, T. Clamens, A.-S. Blier, L. Mijouin, B. Hoffmann, J.-A. Sergent, E. Bouffartigues, W. Boireau, J. Vieillard, C. Hulen, A. Dufour, N.J. Harmer, M.G.J. Feuilloley, O. Lesouhaitier, « Pseudomonas aeruginosa Expresses a Functional Human Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Ortholog: Involvement in Biofilm Formation », MBio 6 (2015) e01033-15. (IF=6.8)
- F., J. Vieillard, B. Berton, S. Morin-Grognet, C. Duclairoir-Poc, F. Le Derf, « Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method », Applied Surface Science 329 (2015) 337-346. (IF=2.7)
Lunch Break 13:05-13:45 @ Traders Restaurant
Jean marie dubois
Université de Lorraine, France
Title: Low friction, wear resistant quasicrystalline coatings
Jean-Marie Dubois is a director of research emeritus at CNRS, France and a part time scientific adviser at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. He has dedicated a large fraction of his research efforts to promoting specific applications of quasicrystalline materials (tribology, adhesion, heat insulation) in parallel to his fundamental studies of the atomic structure, electronic structure and electron transport properties of this new type of aperiodic matter.
Quasicrystals were discovered in 1982 by Shechtman,1 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011, and have since been the focus of intense research regarding their atomic structure, their properties and potential usefulness.2 Among the few niches of application that were sorted out so far is the possibility to use them as a low friction counterpart in mechanical devices. Typical friction coefficients pointed out against hard steel is indeed about half that observed with conventional metallic metals or with hard steel sliding against itself. Wear during short pin-on-disk tests is also very much reduced. The intrinsic brittleness of quasicrystals is however very much detrimental to such an application, which therefore could not be implemented on realistic devices. We came however to a totally different issue in recent years when we could show3 that an appropriately prepared quasicrystalline coating can produce friction as low as 6% against hard steel and sintered tungsten carbide whereas wear is negligible for extremely long pin-on-disk tests (i.e. lasting for at least 5 km), see left hand side of the image. The talk will summarize our findings in this area and show how low friction is related to the specific electronic structure of quasicrystals, which determines their surface energy4. An overview on other characteristic application niches of quasicrystals will be given
Recent Publications :
- D. Shechtman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(20) (1984) 1951-1955.
- J.M. Dubois, Useful Quasicrystals, World Scientific, Singapore, 2005.
- B.A. Silva Guedes de Lima et al., STAM 17-1 (2016) 71-79.
- J.M. Dubois & E. Belin-Ferré, STAM 15 (2014) 034804 (20pp).
- J.M. Dubois, Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 4760-4777.
Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland
Title: Hafnium and palladium modified aluminide coatings
Jolanta Romanowska has completed her PhD from AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland and DSc from the Silesian University of Technology, Poland. She is the professor at the Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland. She has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals. She has her expertise in thermodynamics of alloys and protective coatings. She elaborated the model of predicting thermodynamic properties of ternary alloys on the basis of thermodynamic properties of binary alloys.
Hafnium or palladium modification of NiAl phase increases the oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings deposited on turbine blades in a hot section of jet engines. Small hafnium or palladium addition to aluminide coatings decreases the oxidation rate of turbine blades made of nickel superalloys. Small content of hafnium (0.1-1.0 % wt) improves high temperature mechanical properties of aluminized nickel based superalloys. Palladium modification increased the outer zone hardness. It is due to the presence of the σ and µ phases. The palladium or hafnium modified aluminide coatings have better oxidation resistance than the non- modified ones. The use of ‘co-doping’ has recently been emphasized as a strategy for optimizing the oxidation resistance of super alloys, conventional alloys and coatings. The comparison of structures of hafnium and palladium modified aluminide coatings deposited on pure nickel and CMSX 4 nickel superalloy is presented. Aluminide layers were deposited by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Hafnium was deposited simultaneously with aluminum. Aluminum was deposited from the AlCl3 and hafnium from the HfCl3 gas phases. Palladium was deposited by the electrodeposition method. The obtained coatings were examined using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an XRD phase analyzer. Both coatings consist of two layers; an outer, comprising the ß-NiAl phase and the interdiffusion one. The interdiffusion layer on pure nickel consists of the γ’-Ni3Al phase, whereas on the CMSX4 – of the ß-NiAl phase. Small inclusions of Pd and Hf rich phases were found at the border of the layers on nickel, whereas inclusion containing Pd, Hf and refractory elements were observed in the interdiffusion zone on the CMSX4 superalloy.
The research has been supported by the National Science Centre, Poland Grant No. 2015/19/B/ST8/01645.
Recent Publications :
- J. Romanowska (2014) Aluminium diffusion in aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD method on pure nickel. CALPHAD 44:114-118
- J. Romanowska, M. Zagula-Yavorska (2013) Zirconium influence on microstructure of aluminide coatings deposited on nickel substrate by CVD method. Bulletin of Materials Science 36:1043-1048
- J. Romanowska, J. Morgiel, .M. , J. Sieniawski (2015) Nanoparticles in hafnium-doped aluminide coatings, Materials Letters, 145: 15 162-166
- J. Romanowska, B. Wierzba, J. Markowski, M. Zagula-Yavorska, J. Sieniawski (2016) The Ni-Al-Hf multiphase diffusion, Arch. Metall. Mater. 587-592
- M. Zagula-Yavorska, J. Morgiel, J. Romanowska, J. Sieniawski (2016), Microstructure and oxidation behaviour investigation of rhodium modified aluminide coating deposited on CMSX 4 superalloy. Journal of Microscopy, 261: 320–325.
- P. Fima, J. Romanowska (2015) Activity of bismuth in liquid Ag-Bi-Ni alloys determined by equilibrium saturation method, Journal of Mining and Matallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy, 51:105-112
RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Title: Resistive switching in highly disordered thin oxide films
Manfred Martin is Professor and Head of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RWTH Aachen University, Germany. At Seoul National University, Korea he was WCU Professor and is now Adjunct Professor. He has more than 30 years of experience in education and research of physical chemistry of solids as well as service at department, faculty and university level. His current research focusses on materials for energy conversion, resistive switching, solid-state reactions, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and computer simulations as well. Professor Manfred Martin has published >200 scientific papers in international, refereed journals. He received the Carl-Wagner Award and has been elected as member of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He has supervised more than 50 Ph.D. students and more than 20 postdoctoral fellows.
In thin films of mixed ionic electronic conductors sandwiched by two ion-blocking electrodes, the homogeneous migration of ions and their polarization will modify the electronic carrier distribution across the conductor, thereby enabling homogeneous resistive switching. Here we report non-filamentary memristive switching based on the bulk oxide ion conductivity of amorphous GaOx (x~1.1) thin films. We directly observe reversible enrichment and depletion of oxygen ions at the blocking electrodes responding to the bias polarity by using photoemission and transmission electron microscopies, proving that oxygen ion mobility causes memristive behavior. The shape of the hysteresis I-V curves is tunable by the bias history, as found in the mathematically derived memristor model. This dynamical behaviour can be attributed to the coupled ion drift and diffusion motion and the oxygen concentration profile acting as a state function of the memristor. Further examples will be discussed
Recent Publications :
Liu M, Leichtweiß T, Janek J, Martin M (2013) In-situ structural investigation of non-stoichiometric HfO2-x films using quick-scanning extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Thin Solid Films 539:60-64.
2. Leichtweiß T, Henning RA, Koettgen J, Schmidt RM, Holländer B, Martin M, Wuttig M, Janek J (2014) Amorphous and Highly Nonstoichiometric Titania (TiOx) Thin Films close to Metal-like Conductivity, Mater. Chem. A 2:6631-6640.
3. Aoki Y, Wiemann C, Feyer V, Kim HS, Schneider CM, Yoo HI, Martin M (2014) Bulk mixed ion electron conduction in amorphous gallium oxide causes memristive behaviour, Nat.Commun. 5:3473 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4473.
4. Kura C, Aoki Y, Tsuji E, Habazaki H, Martin M (2016) Fabrication of a resistive switching gallium oxide thin film with a tailored gallium valence state and oxygen deficiency by rf cosputtering process, RSC Advances 6:8964-8070.
Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia
Title: TiO2 nanotubes as potential vascular stents: effect of oxygen plasma treatment on crystal structure and surface properties
Metka Benčina has her expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials for photocatalytic and biomedical applications. She produced novel metal oxides with pyrochlore structure and proved their absorption in visible range of EM spectrum and enhanced photocatalytic properties under UV and visible light irradiation. Currently she is fabricating TiO2 nanostructural surfaces and investigating their applications in biomedicine - biosensors for detection and treatment of cancer cells, photo-assisted cancer treatment and biomimicking vascular stents. Her particular research interest is the effect of oxygen plasma treatment of biomaterials.
Despite intensive research and applications of different techniques to improve surface properties of vascular stents, currently available metal stents and their coatings (DES - drug eluting stents) still lack of desired surface biocompatibility, mostly due to mechanical injuries, inflammation, as well as proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells, often with progression to restenosis . Besides, the durability and stability of DES is still problematic and has been connected with high risk of thrombosis [2, 3]. Biomimetic nano-sized materials, with their crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical properties are one of critical features for their potential use in vascular stent applications, which should support adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and prevent abnormal growth of smooth muscle cells. For example, it was shown that titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) topography is essential parameter in optimizing endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell responses to vascular implants . The purpose of this study is to investigate surface properties and crystal structure of TiO2 NTs. Since the oxygen plasma treatment plays significant role in surface treatment of biomedical devices due to surface cleaning and sterilization, its effect on the mechanical stability and surface chemical properties was evaluated. Vertically-aligned arrays of TiO2 NTs were synthesized on Ti metallic substrates with electrochemical anodization . The crystal structure was investigated with X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, while morphology and surface properties were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Water Contact Angle analysis. Our results indicate that oxygen plasma treatment of TiO2 NTs surfaces induces the formation of oxide layer on the surface of TiO2 NT, which could result in enhanced biocompatibility. Moreover, plasma treatment removes undesired electrolyte residues on TiO2 NTs surface and highly improves its wettability. We showed that plasma treated TiO2 NTs possess long-term hydrophilicity and influence on crystallization of amorphous TiO2 NTs to anatase and/or rutile crystal phase, which could be the reason for improved wettability. The optimized conditions (power, frequency and time) of oxygen plasma treatment on the mechanical stability of TiO2 NTs are also presented. Oxygen plasma treatment can greatly improve the surface characteristics of biomimetic materials and enhance their biocompatibility. Restenosis and thrombosis still remain a serious concern and should be given a great deal of attention in order to produce improved tissue-material response.
Recent Publications :
- Hoffmann R, Mintz GS, Dussaillant GR, Popma JJ, Pichard AD, Satler LF, Kent KM, Griffin J, Leon MB (1996) Patterns and mechanisms of in-stent restenosis. A serial intravascular ultrasound study. Circulation, 94(6): p. 1247-1254.
- De la Torre-Hernández JM, Alfonso F, Hernández F, Elizaga J, Sanmartin M, Pinar E, ... & Hernández JM (2008) Drug-eluting stent thrombosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51(10), 986.
- Doyle B, Rihal CS, O’Sullivan CJ, Lennon RJ, Wiste HJ, Bell M, ... & Holmes DR (2007) Outcomes of stent thrombosis and restenosis during extended follow-up of patients treated with bare-metal coronary stents. Circulation, 116(21), 2391-2398.
- Lu, J., Rao, M. P., MacDonald, N. C., Khang, D., & Webster, T. J. (2008). Improved endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation on patterned titanium surfaces with rationally designed, micrometer to nanometer features. Acta biomaterialia, 4(1), 192-201.
- Kulkarni M, Mrak-Poljsak K, Flasker A, Mazare A, Schmuki P, Kos A, ... & Iglic A (2015) Fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes for bioaplications. Materiali in tehnologije, 49(4), 635-637
Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Romania
Title: Particle size versus energetics of nanomaterials: key parameters controlling the stability and reactivity of nanostructured materials
Speranta Tanasescu is Head of the Laboratory of Chemical Thermodynamics in the Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest. She received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry – Romanian Academy in1979, The thematic research area is oriented on activities with impact in the following domains: materials science, nanoscience and nanotechnologies, new sources of energies, nanosafety, nanomedicine etc. The obtained results by her group are significant for both the understanding of processing-structure relationships, as well as for finding key parameters in relation to bio-reactivity of the nanomaterials with mpact in nanosafety research.
Due to the unique and unusual physical and chemical properties of the systems and structures at the nanoscale, the understanding of their stability and reactivity, presents a host of questions and problems. The dimension-dependent properties or phenomena may be used for functional effects, the nanotechnology taking advantage of this by designing property modifications for applicative reasons. At the same time, research to date suggests that some engineered nanomaterials will present hazards, thus challenging many conventional approaches related to nanosafety area. Because this is an emerging scientific issue, to identify key parameters important for evaluating the possible benefits as well as risks is a central point in the research activity with impact in the materials science. In the present paper will be argued that control of the energetic parameters and the understanding of their crossover when working at the nano-level are important steps in understanding the nanomaterial stability and the possibilities to interaction with the biologic systems. Some compounds from specific systems were selected for discussion: nanostructured transition metal oxides; nanoalloys, bio-nonbio systems. Several conclusions can be drawn from the characterization data obtained so far: •Exploring the relationships between different compositional variables and thermodynamic properties of nanocrystalline transition metal oxides we obtained that particular behavior of these materials could be explained not only qualitatively by the structural changes, but also by the fact that the energetic properties are extremely sensitive to the chemical defects in oxygen sites. •Investigating the metastable phases of Nano alloys synthesized by severe deformation non-equilibrium methods we obtained that the energetic parameters may be used to explain the experimentally observed stability in particular temperature ranges associated with the growth process of nanometer-sized samples. •The evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters describing the nanoparticle - protein interaction is a key issue for the bio-reactivity of nanomaterials having a great impact in nanosafety research
Recent Publications :
- Tanasescu S, Maxim F, Neacsu A, Teodorescu F, Milea A, Energetic parameters controlling the stability and reactivity of micro and nanostructured materials (2016), Chapter in Series in Micro and Nanoenginnering, ed. Romanian Academy, Bucharest, pag. 33-50.
- Rusti C.F., Badilita V., Sofronia A.M., Taloi D, Anghel E.M., Maxim F, Hornoiu C, Munteanu C, Piticescu R.M., Tanasescu S. (2017) Thermodynamic properties of the Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 nanopowders obtained by hydrothermal synthesis 69: 1000-1010
- Tanasescu S, Milea A, Gingu O, Maxim F, Hornoiu C, Preda S, Sima G (2015) A Correlation between thermodynamic properties, thermal expansion and electrical resistivity of Ag – 28 % Cu nanopowders processed by mechanical alloying route, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17:28322-28330
- Milea A., Gingu O., Preda S., Sima G, Nicolicescu C., Tanasescu S. (2015) Thermodynamic measurements on Ag - 28% Cu nanopowders processed by mechanical alloying route, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 629, 214-220
- Gingu O., Rotaru P., Milea, A., Marin, A, Nicolicescu, C., Sima, G., Tanasescu, S. (2015) In-situ synthesis of AgCu/Cu2O nanocomposite by mechanical alloying: The effect of the processing on the thermal behavior, Thermochimica Acta 606, 1-11
- Maxim F, Berger D, Teodorescu F, Hornoiu C, Lete C, Tanasescu S (2015) Low-temperature synthesis and thermodynamic and electrical properties of barium titanate nanorods, Journal of Nanomaterials 2015:827641
- Maxim F., Poenaru, I., Teodorescu, F., Tanasescu, S. (2014) Barium Titanate Torus-Like Particles: Low-Temperature Synthesis and Formation Mechanism, Eur J Inorg Chem, 30, pp. 5160-5167.
- A. Sofronia, R. Baies, E. Anghel, C. Marinescu, S. Tanasescu (2014) Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 43, 153–163
- C. Marinescu, A. Sofronia, C. Rusti, R. Piticescu, V. Badilita, E. Vasile, R. Baies, S. Tanasescu, (2011) DSC investigation of nanocrystalline TiO2 powder, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 103:49-57.
Commissariat Energie Atomique, France
Title: Formation of carbon-based nanostructures from carbon suboxide decomposition at high pressure and temperature – a ReaxFF study
Xavier Bidault has his expertise in modeling and analysis of nanostructured materials by Molecular Dynamics. In order to study nanostructured optical fibers, the simple adaptive model that he developed during his Physics PhD allowed the simulations to reproduce for the first time the separation of phases of complex compositions in silica-based glasses, as experimentally observed. He now enlarges his skills to organic materials to understand how the granularity (surface energy and porosity) of a nanostructured energetic material impacts its reactivity under shock, with a focus on nanodiamond formation.
In high-pressure and -temperature conditions of detonation, carbon-rich explosives produce carbon-based nanostructures like Nano diamonds . The formation process from these organic compounds is still not clear and the published Molecular Dynamics studies are either limited to carbon condensation with no chemistry , which is quite basic, or by computer resources when modeling systems with full “carbon-hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen” chemistry , preventing long-time simulations. As the formed nanostructures are mainly composed of carbon and oxygen (with low amounts of hydrogen and nitrogen), an intermediate system between non-reactive and full-chemistry ones can be represented by carbon sub oxide (C3O2), in mixture with Argon. When modeled with a reactive force field (ReaxFF-lg ), this system catches experimental results of low-pressure detonation (~10 bar)  and allows extrapolations in the high-pressure domain of solid-state high-explosive detonations (up to 60 GPa). In these extreme conditions, it appears that the formation process of carbon-based nanostructures is deeply modified and the results obtained from this reactive carbon-oxygen system give new insights on the formation of Nano diamonds
Recent Publications :
- V. Pichot et al., “Understanding ultrafine nanodiamond formation using nanostructured explosives,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, p. 2159, (2013).
- N. Pineau et al., “Theoretical study of the nucleation/growth process of carbon clusters under pressure,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 129, no. 2, p. 024708, (2008).
- L. Zhang et al., “Carbon Cluster Formation during Thermal Decomposition of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine and 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene High Explosives from ReaxFF Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations,” J. Phys. Chem. A, vol. 113, no. 40, p. 10619, (2009).
- L. Liu et al., “ReaxFF-lg: Correction of the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for London Dispersion, with Applications to the Equations of State for Energetic Materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A, vol. 115, no. 40, p. 11016, (2011).
- G. L. Agafonov et al., “Kinetic modeling of solid carbon particle formation and thermal decomposition during carbon suboxide pyrolysis behind shock waves,” Combustion Science and Technology, vol. 174, no. 5–6, p. 185, (2002).
University of Sharjah, UAE
Title: Starch capped silver Nanoparticles as colorimetric sensor for hydrogen peroxide recognition in aqueous medium
Abdelaziz Elgamouz is an assistant Professor of bioanalytical Chemistry in the University of Sharjah. His research interest lies in coordination chemistry of macrocyclic ligands that has been a fascinating area of current research interest all over the world. The continued interest and quest in designing new macrocyclic ligands stem mainly from their use as models for protein-metal binding sites in a substantial array of metalloproteins in biological systems, as synthetic ionophores, as models to study the magnetic ex- change phenomena, as therapeutic reagents in chelate therapy for the treatment of metal intoxication, as cyclic antibiotics that owe their antibiotic actions to specific metal complexation, to study the guest- host interactions, and in catalysis. Recognition of the importance of complexes containing macrocyclic ligands has led to a considerable effort being invested in developing reliable inexpensive synthetic routes for these compounds.
In the present study, starch capped silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized successfully and characterized by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were used for the sensing of hydrogen peroxide based on a colorimetric technique. The nanoparticles were synthesised in a one pot reactor using AgNO3 as Ag source and sodium borohydride (NaBH4), as reducing agent. The silver catalytic ability for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was assessed using different concentration of AgNP, pH effect, temperature effect and different loads of hydrogen peroxide. The yellow-greenish colour of the silver nanoparticles solution was found to change gradually to a transparent solution.
Networking and Refreshments Break 16:05-16:25 @ Academy Breakout Lounge
- Track 2:Advanced Biomaterials, Bio devices & Tissue Engineering
Track 3:Advanced Ceramics and Composite Materials
Location: Balvenie Glenmorangie
Garcia Garcia Francisco
University of Edinburgh, Scotland
University of Aveiro, Portugal
Title: Design of nanostructured powders and mechanical properties of WC-AISI 304 stainless steel composites
Ana Senos is Associate Professor at the Dep. Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, Portugal. She has been involved in the investigation of ceramics and nanocomposites processing, on the topics of sintering kinetics, microstructural development, grain boundary design, constrained sintering, and the relation with the electrical answer and mechanical behavior of materials. Current interests are focused on development of nanostructured materials for structural, electrical and nuclear applications and on the study of grain boundary phenomena in electronic functional materials (2D, 3D), for microwave and energy applications. Ana is author (co-authored) of more than 130 publications, including 3 Book Chapters, 103 papers (92 from SCI), 19 proceedings and 2 patents, with ca. 1400 citations (h-index=22). She has about 130 communications as oral and poster presentations or as invited speaker.
Cemented carbides are constituted by WC and a metallic binder usually processed through powder metallurgy routes. The good compromise between hardness and toughness achieved in cemented carbides designates the common use to cutting, machining and wear applications. The increasing application demands require not only materials with improved properties but also efficient processing techniques. The improvement of mechanical properties, namely hardness, can be achieved through grain size reduction up to the nanoscale range. In the present work nanostructured powders of WC and stainless steel (SS) have been prepared using two routes: high energy ball milling (HEBM) to produce Nano metric particles of WC and SS; and an innovative sputtering coating technique (SC) to coat micrometric WC particles with nanometric SS. For comparison, powders in the micro/submicrometer range were also prepared by conventional milling (CM). Composites of these powders were shaped by pressing and thermal consolidated using vacuum sintering. The final phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), respectively, together with X-ray mapping for elemental distribution and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for the grain size distribution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was also used for grain boundaries inspection and access the nanometric details of the microstructure. Composites from the different powders (HEBM, SC and CM) showed very different values of hardness, HV30, and toughness, KIC, varying from extremely hard parts for the HEBM composites, to impressive high tough composites for the SC parts. These mechanical responses are discussed taking into account the structure/microstructure and grain boundaries details leaded by the designed powder morphology.
Recent Publications :
1.“Sintering, microstructure and properties of WC-AISI304 powder composites”, B.J. Marques, C.M. Fernandes, A.M.R. Senos, J. Alloys and Compounds, 562, 164-70 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.02.013
2. “Grain Growth Anomaly and Dielectric Response in Ti-rich Strontium Titanate Ceramics”, Luís Amaral, Manuela Fernandes, Ian M. Reaney, Martin P. Harmer, Ana M. R. Senos and Paula M. Vilarinho, J. Phys. Chem. C, 117 (47), pp 24787–24795 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp4035437
3. “Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of a Si-Ca-P-Mg bioactive glass”, E.J.C. Davim, A.M.R. Senos, M.H.V. Fernandes , J Therm Anal Calorim, 117 (2), 643-51 (2014). DOI 10.1007/s10973-014-3786-3
4. “Mechanical characterization of WC-10 wt% AISI 304 cemented carbides“, C.M. Fernandes, L.M. Vilhena, C.M.S. Pinho, F.J. Oliveira, E. Soares, J. Sacramento, A.M.R. Senos, Materials Science & Engineering A, 618, 629-36 (2014). DOI 10.1016/j.msea.2014.09.064
5. “Corrosion behaviour of WC-10% AISI 304 cemented carbides”, A.B. Oliveira, A.C. Bastos, C.M. Fernandes, C.M.S. Pinho, A.M.R. Senos, E. Soares, J. Sacramento, M.L. Zheludkevich, M.G.S. Ferreira, Corrosion Science, 100, 322-31 (2015).Doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.08.006
6. “Abrasive wear resistance of WC-Co and WC-AISI 304 composites by ball-cratering method”, L.M. Vilhena, C.M. Fernandes, E. Soares, J. Sacramento, A.M.R. Senos, A. Ramalho, Wear, 346, 99-107 (2016). Doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2015.11.005
Laboratoire de Thermocinétique de Nantes, France
Title: Thermal characterization of a thermoplastic resin for resin transfer molding in process conditions. Demonstrating of the feasibility of the technology
Jean-Luc Bailleul is working on composite material processing since twenty year. Specially on the mastering of thermal cycle to control final pieces qualities in terms of their final mechanical properties and in terms of cycle time. Thus, he has developed a phenomenological model to describe heat generation during thermosets resins transformation. The specificity of his laboratory is the development of experimental tests benches to understand the physical phenomena that occurs in composite materials during their transformation. Since ten years he develops also some works on composites materials recycling. The result of all his works is that he has now a good hindsight on thermal phenomena influence on polymer processing.
Composites materials pieces based on thermoplastics resins are suitable candidates to replace iron parts in the automotive sector for the purpose of reducing weight and hence to reduce CO2 emissions. But, the use of such composite material used in the automotive sector is notably determined by the total cost of the pieces. So, new materials such as low viscosity thermoplastics or reactive thermoplastics resins are developed to give an answer [1, 2]. These materials needs also the development of adapted processing methods like resin transfer molding (RTM) and compacting resin transfer molding (C-RTM).
In these presentation we deal with the thermal characterization of low viscosity resin, and more specially its crystallization kinetics , in wide temperature range with an Avrami model [4, 5]. The study of its density evolution during crystallization, according to the pressure and the temperature, is also presented . Then we present new devices developed to prove the feasibility of thermoplastics resins processing by RTM [7, 8]. The experimental thermal measurements during an injection demonstrate the accuracy of our thermal model and of its thermal parameters.
2. ANR MATETPRO, project TAPAS (Thermoplastic Process for Automotive Composite Structures), 2011-2015
3. Faraj J., Boyard N., Pignon B., Bailleul J-L., Delaunay D., Orange G. “Crystallization kinetics of new low viscosity polyamides 66 for thermoplastic composites processing,” Thermochimica-Acta, Volume 624, 27-34, 2016.
4. Avrami M., "Kinetics of phase change I, General Theory", J. Chem. Phys, vol. 7, 1103-1112, 1939.
5. Avrami M., "Kinetics of phase change II, Transformation-Time Relations for Random Distribution of Nuclei", J. Chem. Phys, vol. 8, 212-224, 1940
6. Pignon B., Tardiff X., Lefèvre N., Sobotka V., Boyard N., Delaunay D., "A new PVT device for high performance thermoplastics : Heat transfer analysis and crystallization kinetics identification.", Polymer testing 45, may 2015.
7. Faraj J, "Analyse thermocinétique de la cristallization en milieu confiné d'un composite à base d'une résine thermoplastique (Polyamide 66)", PhD thesis, University of Nantes, June 2016.
8. Cazaux G., "Faisabilité des procédés LCM pour l'élaboration de composites renfort continu à matrice thermoplastique polyamide", PhD thesis, University of Le Havre, June 2016.
Nuno M. Ferreira
University of Aveiro, Portugal
Title: Thermoelectric oxides processed by a laser floating zone technique
Nuno Ferreira a PhD (2014) in Physics Engineering, nowadays, a pos-doc researcher at i3N, Physics Department and CICECO – Materials science and Ceramics Department at Aveiro University – Portugal. Had participated as collaborator and fellowship in several R&D projects on material science. Experience on study and development of ceramic based materials prepared through conventional methods (melting, solid stated) and focus in laser processing (crystal growth – LFZ and surface sintering). Present sample characterization skills on different techniques such as, electrical conductivity and magnetic properties of various oxide materials. Current focus materials: thermoelectrics, ferroelectrics and glass matrices doped with transition metals and rare earth for energy storage and conversion applications. Main expertise is relate to magnetic and electrical properties of materials and laser processing.
Oxide ceramics are very promising materials for new thermoelectric devices, as they exhibit high Seebeck coefficient and could present relatively low electrical resistivity, as well as high chemical stability at high temperatures. They show anisotropic thermoelectric properties linked to their layered structures. Therefore, texturing methods developing oriented grains, such as grain growth processes have already shown their applicability to this kind and similar compounds. Among these methods, the laser floating zone (LFZ) melting technique has been found to be very promising to tune up the performances of these compounds, especially in the Co-oxide based materials studied in the last years in our laboratories. In this work, some examples highlighting the versatility and usefulness of LFZ technique and the improvements on the thermoelectric performances of textured materials will be shown. This technique allows obtaining very dense, and well textured thermoelectric composite materials. In spite of the well known incongruent solidification of this family of materials, the as-grown samples possess high thermoelectric properties which can be further enhanced by an adequate annealing procedure, leading to nearly single phase materials. These microstructural modifications produce an important improvement of power factor when compared with materials prepared through conventional techniques. Moreover, this processing technique also shows good prospects to be applied in modules construction
Recent Publications :
- A.V Kovalevsky, A. Myriam, S. Populoh, S. Patrício, N.M. Ferreira, S. Mikhalev,D. Fagg, A. Weidenkaff, J.R. Frade, Designing strontium titanate-based thermoelectrics: an insight into defect chemistry mechanisms, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, manuscript ID is: TA-ART-11-2016-009860.R1, Dec 2016
- A. Sotelo, F.M. Costa, N.M. Ferreira, A. Kovalevsky, M.C. Ferro, V.S. Amaral, J.S. Amaral, S. Rasekh, M.A. Torres, M.A. Madre, J.C. Diez. 'Tailoring Ca3Co4O9 microstructure and performances using a transient liquid phase sintering additive', J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36 (2016) 1025.
- M. A. Madre, F. M. Costa, N. M. Ferreira, S. I. R. Costa, Sh. Rasekh, M. A. Torres, J. C. Diez, V. S. Amaral, J. S. Amaral, A. Sotelo, High thermoelectric performance in Bi2-xPbxBa2Co2Ox promoted by directional growth and annealing, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 67-74, DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.09.034;
- Sh. Rasekh, F.M. Costa, N.M. Ferreira, M.A. Torres, M.A. Madre, J.C. Diez, A. Sotelo, Use of laser technology to produce high thermoelectric performances in Bi2Sr2Co1.8Ox, Materials and Design 75 (2015) 143–148, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.03.005;
- F.M. Costa, N.M. Ferreira, S. Rasekh, A.J.S. Fernandes, M.A. Torres, M.A. Madre, J.C. Diez, A. Sotelo, Very Large Superconducting Currents Induced by Growth Tailoring, Cryst. Growth Des. 15 (2015) 2094–2101. DOI: 10.1021/cg5015972
- Sh. Rasekh, N.M. Ferreira, F.M. Costa, G. Constantinescu, M.A. Madre, M.A. Torres, J.C. Diez, A. Sotelo, Development of a new thermoelectric Bi2Ca2Co1.7Ox + Ca3Co4O9 composite, Scripta Materialia 80 (2014), 1–4
- M.A. Madre, F.M. Costa, N.M. Ferreira, A. Sotelo, M.A. Torres, G. Constantinescu,Sh. Rasekh, J.C. Diez, Preparation of high-performance Ca3Co4O9 thermoelectric ceramics produced by a new two-step method, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 33 (2013) 1747–1754, DOI:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.01.029
- N.M. Ferreira, Sh. Rasekh, F.M. Costa, M.A. Madre, A. Sotelo, J.C. Diez, M. A. Torres, New method to improve the grain alignment and performance of thermoelectric ceramics, Materials Letters (2012), 144-147, DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2012.05.131
Alberto Jorge Mora
Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Title: LIPSS stimulate stem mesenchymal cells differentiation to osteoblasts in titanium and tantalium
Alberto Jorge is an orthopaedic Surgeon with special interest in biomaterials. He is focusing every effort in the study of the behaviour of surface modifications in the field of orthopaedic surgery. Previously he performed different modifications in PMMA to create composites with hydroxyapatite to prevent fibroblastic response (Pino et al 2015). Nowadays he has dedicate to laser modification of metals and cermets to increase anisotropic osteointegration of implants.
Orthopaedic surgery has grown from the hand of new materials that made possible to perform procedures as total hip replacement with feasibility. These procedures are common in most orthopaedic departments, and more than 70 000 hip or knee replacements are performed in Spain every year. The survival of these implants is critical to prevent loosening and the need for revision arthroplasty. The ideal surface to interact with bone has not been created. We created laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in the surface of titanium and tantalium to study the behaviour of stem cells compared to polished surfaces. We created 12 discs of each material and polished them. Later we created LIPSS in 6 discs of each material. We cultured them in human stem cells in a concentration of 25000 cell per cm2 for 20 days. We determined MTT, TNF-Alfa, alkaline phosphatase, IL-6, osteopontin and osteocalcin every 5 days until the day 20. We confirmed outcomes behave as a normal distribution after applying the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. We compared materials and surfaces with the T-student test. We accepted a difference of 0.05 as significant. LIPSS created increase statistically cell metabolism (best values in MTT assay) and decrease inflammatory response to the material (IL-6 and TNF-alfa values). Collagen is produced in more quantity and cells differentiate to osteoblast easily. These differences are seen from the beginning until the endpoint (day 20). LIPSS improved osteogenic properties of titanium and tantalium compared to smooth surfaces.
Garcia Garcia Francisco
University of Edinburgh, Scotland
Title: Biological Cell Inspired Reactors for an Increasing Population World
Dr Francisco R. García-García is a Lecturer in Chemical Reaction Engineering at the School of Engineering at University of Edinburgh. He holds an MSc in Chemistry by the Autónoma University of Madrid and a PhD in Chemical Engineering by the Institute of Catalysis and Petroleum-chemistry, CSIC. He gained his first post-doctoral experience working at the Department of Chemical Engineering of Imperial College London. In this period, he focused in the design and development of catalytic multifunctional reactors for hydrogen production. Afterwards, he worked as a Senior Scientist at Johnson Matthey in the Emissions Control Department. Despite having a very rewarding experience working in industry, he soon realized that he preferred to be involved in more fundamental science and he moved back to the academia. Hence, he joined the UK Catalysis Hub as a research fellow working at the Chemical Engineering Department at Cambridge University, and at the Chemical Engineering Department at Newcastle University. During this time his research focused in chemical looping reforming for syngas and hydrogen production.
Dr Francisco R. García–García research seeks sustainable solutions to today’s emission control and energy production challenges by mimicking biological cell strategies. Biological cells can be seen as enhanced multifunctional reactors specifically designed to solve fundamental chemical engineering issues such as thermodynamic limitations, catalyst deactivation, and product separation. For example, cells can overcome the thermodynamic limitations because the reaction sites are enclosed within the cell membrane, which is permeable to some of the reaction products. Likewise, cyclic vs linear pathways allow a quick and economic solution to chemical problems. While these approaches are common in cells, they are only sporadically applied technologically in a purposeful manner. The aim of Dr Francisco R. García–García research group is to design, develop and fabricate multifunctional catalytic reactors inspired by how biological cells work, which allows the integration of multi-processes in a single device. The integration of multi-process (reaction, regeneration and separation) in a single reactor enables the intensification of the overall process, making it safer, cleaner, smaller and cheaper. So far the difficulty of combining chemistry, materials science and engineering knowledge in a single unit has prevented the full development of this concept. In this respect, Dr Francisco R. García-García is recognized for his knowledge in the area of gas phase heterogeneous catalysis, new materials development, membrane technology and chemical looping in the interphase between chemistry and chemical engineering.
Recent Publications :
- F.R. García-García, E. Gallegos-Suarez, M. Fernández-García, A. Guerrero-Ruiz and I. Rodríguez-Ramos (2017) Understanding the role of oxygen surface groups; the key for a smart ruthenium-based carbon-supported heterogeneous catalyst design and synthesis. Applied Catalysis A: General (in press)
- N. Subramanian, A. Caravaca, F.R. García-García. M. Bowker (2016) Modern Developments in Catalysis Chapter I: Sustainable Hydrogen and/or Syngas Production: New Approaches to Reforming. UK Catalysis Hub Book ISBN-978-1-78634-121-1
- L. Torrente-Murciano and F.R. García-García (2015) Effect of nanostructured support on the WGSR activity of Pt/ceria catalysts. Catalysis Communications 71, 1-6.
- F.R. García-García and K. Li. (2013) New catalytic reactors prepared from symmetric and asymmetric ceramic hollow fibres. Applied Catalysis A: General 456, 1-10.
- J.A. Medrano, I. Julián, F.R. García-García, K. Li, J. Herguido and M. Menendez (2013) Two-zone fluidized bed reactor (TZFBR) with palladium membrane for catalytic propane dehydrogenation: Experimental performance assessment. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 52, 3723-3731
Brunel University, United Kingdom
Title: Biological Cell Inspired Reactors for an Increasing Population World
Professor Paul A. Sermon was born in Caversham in 1945. He was educated at Westminster City School, Bangor University and University of Bristol (PhD, DSc). He was Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Surrey, where his research concentrated on bottom-up nanotechnological routes to catalysts, sensors and biofuels, until the autumn of 2010. He then became Professor of Nanomaterials at the Wolfson Materials Processing Centre in 2011. His research is now focused in nanomaterials and biomimetic nanomaterials with useful forensic, catalytic and photocatalytic properties. This research is supported by Government Agencies and the Royal Society. On Thursday 10th November 2011 at a dinner at the Royal Society, it was announced that he was a recipient of a Royal Society Brian Mercer Feasibility Award.
Some have used sol-gel synthesis to give injectable hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) using aqueous solutions of Ca(CH3COO)2.2H2O to which was added 1,2-ethandiol, chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), triethanolamine and then Na2HPO4 that could be spin- or dip-coated on various substrates . Others suggest that inorganic-organic combinations are better for initiating bone replacement treatments . Some have chosen HAp deposited on bacterial-cellulose , but that required cellulose treatment with citrate ions to increase Ca2+ take-up and even then the product had a low (1.2) Ca:P ratio.
Here we compare HAp that is
(i) sol-gel-derived nanoparticles (NPs)
(ii) generated on the surface of organic harvested Portobello mushroom spores (PMS); after PMS washing in water and then acetone, they were infiltrated with 5 mL (55mM) CaCl2 solution for 1h with stirring at 310K to give Ca+2/PMS, filtered, dried, and then infiltrated with a 55mM Na2CO3 to give CaCO3/PMS and finally with a 13mM Na2HPO4 to give HAp/PMS with Ca:P=1.7
Product HAp was characterized by FTIR (where peaks at 873cm-1 (vibration stretching mode of P-O) and 559 and 433 cm-1 (vibration bending mode of O-P-O in the PO3-3 were seen), Raman, TEM, SEM-EDX (Ca:P), XRD and TGA-DSC and biocompatibility with body fluids and enhancement of bone growth with improved mechanical properties. The wider opportunities for nanomaterials synthesis using biotemplates and 3D printed PVA hydrogels are considered.
- Track 9:Materials Processing and characterization
Track 15:Materials for Energy application& Energy storage
University of Limoges, France
Univerisity of Texas at Austin, USA
Title: Atomic layer deposition routes to monolithic integration of crystalline oxides on semiconductors
John G. Ekerdt is Associate Dean for Research in Engineering and the Dick Rothwell Endowed Chair in Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. He has more than 300 refereed publications, two books and three book chapters, and seven U.S. patents. He has supervised 48 Ph.D. and 8 M.S. students. Current research interests focus on the surface, growth and materials chemistry of metal, dielectric and perovskite films and nanostructures. The work seeks to: 1) develop and understand the reactions and chemistry that control nucleation and growth of films and nanostructures, and 2) understand the properties of these materials and relate the properties to structure, bonding and growth.
The semiconductor industry faces new challenges in the sub-10 nm era as scaling will no longer dominate performance improvement. New materials provide opportunity to improve performance with minimal architectural overhaul. For example, high-mobility channels of Ge and III-V semiconductors can provide both lower power consumption and faster computing speeds. In certain applications significant advantages are gained by monolithic integration of the oxides directly on the substrates that will host other devices/components. Perovskite oxides offer a wide range of properties from high-k to multiferroic affording the device designer a suite of possibilities, and are particularly important due to their common structure and lattice-matching with common semiconductors. The gallium nitride device applications will require a dielectric to passivate the nitride surface. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) allows for growth of perovskite oxides and rare earth oxides in a chemical deposition process that is scalable and manufacturable. It is possible to grow crystalline perovskites directly on Ge(001) by ALD. Using this approach we have been able to deposit STO, BaTiO3, SrHfO3, Sr(HfTi)O3, and SrZrO3 directly on Ge(001). We will discuss the growth and properties of the perovskite layers directly on Ge(001), and will discuss the interface chemistry and structure that likely controls the interfacial reactions that allow for crystalline film formation. It is also possible to grow crystalline rare earth oxides directly on GaN(0001) by ALD. We report approaches to growing crystalline, hexagonal and cubic Er2O3 on wurtzitic gallium nitride, GaN (0001). As with growth of perovskites on Si and Ge, atomically-thin intermetallic compounds comprised of Group 1 or 2 elements and Group 13-15 elements to facilitate wetting and direct the crystalline growth, in this case the  growth direction of the oxides on GaN (0001). This talk will describe the growth, structures and properties of crystalline oxides grown by ALD.
2. Hu, S., et al. (2016) Monolithic Integration of Perovskites on Ge (001) by Atomic Layer Deposition: A Case Study with SrHfxTi1-xO3 MRS Comm. 6, 125-132.
3. Fredrickson, K. et al. (2016) Theoretical modeling and experimental observations of the atomic layer deposition of SrO using a cyclopentadienyl Sr precursor J. Chem. Phys. 145, 064701.
4. Hu, C., et al. (2016) A low-leakage epitaxial high-κ gate oxide for germanium metal-oxide-semiconductor devices Appl. Mater. Interf. 8, 5416-5423.
5. Chopra S. N., et al. (2016) Selective Growth of Titanium Nitride on HfO2 across Nonolines and Nanopillars Chem. Mater. 28, 4928-4934.
University of Edinburgh, Scotland
Title: Tailoring compatibility in ultrapermeable polymer blends to switch off plasticization and physical ageing
Dr. Cher Hon (Sam) Lau is a Chancellor’s Fellow at the University of Edinburgh. His current research focuses on the scale-up production of microporous materials that are compatible with various polymer matrices, and polymer membranes for liquid separations. Prior his appointment at UoE, he spent 5 years at the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia as a post-doctoral fellow, subsequently as a research scientist. At CSIRO, he discovered the world’s first anti-aging membranes for gas separations and solvent purifications. His anti-aging membrane research is also the cornerstone of membrane research and commercialization efforts in CSIRO. He also co-led several industrial projects working on gas separation and capture using porous frameworks, scale-up production of porous nanoparticles, and membrane separations. He received his Ph. D. degree from the Chemical Engineering department at the National University of Singapore in 2012. He has published more than 20 papers and 4 patents on membrane science and technology in high impact journals.
Despite the rapid evolution of material science, it remains difficult to deploy new polymers that are inadequate to meet the stringent demands of industrial membrane separations. Polymer membranes must be ultrapermeable, selective, and resistant to both physical aging, and plasticization. Polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) are ultrapermeable, yet vulnerable to physical aging and plasticization. Here we show that aging and plasticization in PIMs can be switched on and off through compatibility with a microporous polymer, porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs). By replacing bulky methyl groups with smaller hydro groups, we remove the ability of a PIM polymer matrix to interact with PAFs; accelerating both physical aging and plasticization. Meanwhile PAFs tailors physical aging and annihilates plasticization in the original methylated PIM via physical interactions at specific locations on the PIM polymer chains. This benefits hydrogen recovery at realistic operating conditions; enabling the implementation of polymer membranes as a stand-alone separation technology, a paradigm shift from existing hybrid methods.
Recent Publications :
- Cheng XQ, Konstas K, Doherty CM, wood CD, Mulet X, Xie Z, Ng D, Hill MR, Shao L, Lau CH (2017) Hypercrosslinked additives that impede aging and enhance permeability in thin polyacetylenes films for organic solvent nanofiltration. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 9:14401 - 14408.
- Cheng XQ, Konstas K, Doherty CM, wood CD, Mulet X, Xie Z, Ng D, Hill MR, Lau CH, Shao L (2017) Organic microporous nanofillers with unique alcohol affinity for superior ethanol recovery toward sustainable biofuels. ChemSusChem 10:1887-1891.
- Lau CH, Mulet X, Konstas K, Doherty CM, Sani M-A, Sepravoic F, Hill MR, Wood CD. (2015) Hypercrosslinked additives for ageless gas separation membranes. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55:1998-2001.
- Lau CH, Konstas K, Thornton AW, Liu ACY, Mudie S, Kennedy DF, Howard SC, Hill AJ, Hill MR (2005) Gas separation membranes loaded with porous aromatic frameworks that improve with age. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 54:2669-2673.
5. Lau CH, Nguyen PT, Hill MR, Thornton AW, Konstas K, Doherty CM, Mulder RJ, Bourgeois L, Liu ACY, Sprouster DJ, Sullivan JP, Bastow TJ, Hill AJ, Gin DL, Noble RD (2014) Ending Aging in super glassy polymer membranes. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 53:5322-5326.
University of Limoges, France
Title: Mechanism of Spark Plasma Sintering of High Temperature Ceramics such as carbides
Alexandre Maître is professor at the Science of Ceramic Processes and Surface Treatments laboratory at Limoges in France. His thesis diploma (1995-1998) was devoted to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the synthesis of transition metal carbides by carbothermal reduction. In october 2000, he obtained a permanent position as CNRS researcher at the Laboratory of Chemistry of Inorganic Solid at Nancy to develop investigations concerning the thermodynamic modelling, the electrochemical behaviour in corrosive environment, the metallurgical aspects of lead-based alloys. In September 2004, he became assistant professor in SPCTS to implement research activities about the elaboration by Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route and the mechanisms of sintering of high temperature ceramics. His scientific production (h index: 16) is now composed of 92 publications in international journals, 22 invited conferences, 65 oral communications, 3 chapters of books, 3 grants, etc. He was responsible for at least 15 national or international projects.
Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) has proved is efficiency on the sintering on various materials which were known to be difficult to sinter without additives. In this presentation, the investigation of some thermomechanical properties will be illustrated on two different carbides Zirconium carbide and boron carbide. Zirconium Carbide is interesting for high temperature application. Zirconium carbide (ZrCx) and oxycarbide (ZrCxOy) carbide was synthetized by carboreduction of zirconia and carbon and was then sintered by SPS. A complete study including composition, particles size evolution was done. The kinetics of spark plasma sintered ceramics has been investigated. A change of densification mechanism appears during the intermediate and final sintering stages. During this last stage, the deformation mechanism is similar to the one involved during creep of dense ceramics. The comparison of densification and creep strain rates seems to show that no specific effects strongly enhance strain rate during the final densification stage of Spark Plasma Sintering. Boron carbide is a promising material for moderator in nuclear industry. The influence of preparation before SPS was studied: a liquid way was studied and compared. Different solvent were tested and green bodies were obtained. During this sintering, different chemical reactions were observed: oxides present in the native powder react and the composition of the carbide evolves. In a second step, thermomechanical properties were determined
Recent Publications :
- Belon R., Antou G., Pradeilles N., Maître A., Gosset D., Mechanical behaviour at high temperature of spark plasma sintered boron carbide ceramics, Ceramics International, 43 (8) (2017) 6631-6635.
- Antou G., Pradeilles N., Gendre M., Maître A., New approach of the evolution of densification mechanisms during Spark Plasma Sintering: Application to zirconium (oxy-)carbide ceramics, Scripta Materialia, 101 (2015) 103-106.
- Réjasse F., Trolliard G., Rapaud O., Maître A., David J. TEM study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the carbothermal reduction of hafnia, RSC Advances, 5 (56) (2015) 45341-45350.
- Lee W.E., Giorgi E., Harrison R., Maître A., Rapaud O., Nuclear Applications for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and MAX Phases (Book Chapter), Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Applications, 2014, pp. 391-415.
- David, J., Trolliard, G., Gendre, M., Maître, A., TEM study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the carbothermal reduction of zirconia, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 33 (1) (2013) 165-179.
Swansea University, United Kingdom
Title: Testing methodologies for thermo-mechanical fatigue evaluation in advanced aerospace materials
Dr Whittaker joined Swansea University in 2003 and has produced over 60 publications including an invited book chapter and 40 papers in leading international journals on topics including High Temperature Lifing, Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue and Modern Creep Lifing Approaches. He is also a Board Member of the IOM3 Structure and Properties of Materials Committee.
Current research programmes involve sponsorship from EU Clean Skies, Rolls-Royce, EPSRC and ATI. Dr Whittaker has over 15 years of experience in a wide range of alloys and is leading the development of a code of practice for thermo-mechanical fatigue crack propagation testing. He is also heavily involved in creep lifing of alloys for the power generation/aerospace sectors, with particular expertise in property extrapolation using the recently developed 'Wilshire equations'
Fatigue failures are common within structural components used throughout a range of industrial sectors, and are often a critical design criterion during the specification and development stage of a new product. However, most mechanical testing is performed under isothermal conditions which may not be truly representative of in service conditions. Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing offers the opportunity for the evaluation of a range of advanced material under more appropriate thermal cycles, hence providing more appropriate lifing approaches to ensure component integrity.
TMF tests however, are complicated and difficult to perform, with much consideration necessary to understand the complex interactions of issues such as the heating/cooling method, the phase angle between thermal and mechanical strains/stresses, temperature measurement techniques and cycle frequencies.
Over the past 15 years, the Institute of Structural Materials at Swansea University has devoted significant effort in a number of developmental programmes which have led to internationally recognised expertise in experimental setup and lifing approaches. Consideration in this paper is given to the experimental difficulties associated with using traditional techniques for temperature and crack length measurements (thermocouples and direct current potential difference techniques) and the possibility of utilising more innovative approaches such as thermography is discussed. Research has shown that it is difficult to design a single solution for TMF testing due to the numerous testing requirements that include peak cycle temperature, heating/cooling rate, and the impact of electromagnetic fields associated with induction coils. As such, TMF experiments are often by their very nature, bespoke. Future developments such as the generation of a validated code of practice for crack growth measurements under TMF loading are also discussed
Recent Publications :
- Pretty, C., Whitaker, M. & Williams, S. (2017). Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Crack Growth of RR1000. Materials 10(1), 34
- Jones, J., Whittaker, M., Lancaster, R. & Williams, S. (2017). The influence of phase angle, strain range and peak cycle temperature on the TMF crack initiation behaviour and damage mechanisms of the nickel-based superalloy, RR1000. International Journal of Fatigue , 98, 279-285
- Jones, J., Brookes, S., Whittaker, M. & Lancaster, R. (2014). Non-invasive temperature measurement and control techniques under thermomechanical fatigue loading. Materials Science and Technology 30(15), 1862-1876.
- Pretty, C., Whittaker, M. & Williams, S. (2014). Crack Growth of a Polycrystalline Nickel Alloy under TMF Loading. Advanced Materials Research 891-892, 1302-1307.
- Lancaster, R., Whittaker, M. & Williams, S. (2013). A review of thermo-mechanical fatigue behaviour in polycrystalline nickel superalloys for turbine disc applications. Materials at High Temperatures 30(1), 2-12.
Martin Jones owen
Science and technology facilities council, United Kingdom
Title: Characterization of energy materials by neutron scattering
Martin Owen Jones is a professor at Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK. His international experience includes various programs, contributions and
participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. His research interests as a Scientist reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals.
The ISIS neutron and muon facility is ISIS is a world-leading centre for research in the physical and life sciences at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Its two target stations give an unrivalled breadth of neutron science capabilities and have provided the blueprint for future neutron scattering facilities worldwide. ISIS supports a national and international community of more than 3000 scientists for research into subjects ranging from clean energy and the environment, pharmaceuticals and health care, through to nanotechnology and materials engineering, catalysis and polymers, and on to the fundamental studies of materials. The extensive characterisation facilities include neutron and muon instruments that can determine structure, molecular motion and ionic mobility at extremes of temperature and pressure. Neutron tomography experiments can also be performed to image devices to a resolution of 40 microns.
This presentation will introduce the ISIS neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, including descriptions of the instruments, techniques and capabilities at the facility. The characterisation of energy materials will be explained through a number of case studies ranging from solid oxide fuel cells, through electrolyte materials to conventional and unconventional hydrogen storage materials.
Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia
Title: Permanent Magnets in Energy Applications for the Clean Environment
Prof. Spomenka Kobe is Scientific Advisor, Head of the Department for Nanostructured Materials and a Member of the Scientific Council at the Jožef Stefan Institute. She is a full professor at the International Postgraduate School “Jožef Stefan”. Prof. Kobe is the Leader of the National Research Programme “Nanostructured Materials”. She is the recipient of two State Awards for Scientific Research and two Innovation Awards from industry for the successful transfer of technology. Her scientific work is documented in more than 150 refereed publications, 7 chapters in a book and invited talks at international conferences. Her applied research achievements include 5 patents (2 EP), 3 innovations and 5 successful transfers of technology to the industrial production. Prof. Kobe is also the previous President of the Academic Society for Science and Engineering (SATENA) and an acting Vice-Chair for the European Commission. She supervised 15 doctoral students
Rare-Earth Transition Metals permanent magnets are vital components in the rapidly-developing renewable energy sector, where the motors for electric vehicles and the generators in wind turbines require strong magnets with the ability to operate at temperatures well over 100°C. To achieve high coercivity, remanence and consequently high-energy product at elevated temperatures the addition of heavy rare earth (HRE) to the basic Nd-Fe-B composition is needed. On the list of Critical Raw Materials published by the EC in 2014, HRE is on the very top of it. To drastically reduce the use of HRE we focused on developing a new method, which should enable us to achieve the properties needed for high-temperature application with the lowest amount of scarce elements. The significant progress was attained by using electrophoretic deposition as a method for accurately positioning the HRE on the surface of a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet before its diffusion into the microstructure. After the additional annealing, this process locally increased the coercivity of final magnet, thereby substantially reducing the dependence on the HREs, Dy, and Tb1-3. By our new inventive technique further transferred to a pilot production, we could minimize the amount of HRE used, down to 0.2 at %, the improvement of coercivity was 30 % with minimal loss in remanence. The total saving of the HRE is 16-times less need for the same performance, which is a significant contribution to the world economy and clean environment. In studying the mechanism for such an improvement in coercivity without significantly decreasing the remanence, a detailed microstructure investigation was performed by using high-resolution transmission microscopy and analysis at the nano level (Fig. 1). Besides the use of these new developed high energy magnets for electric and hybrid cars and the wind turbine generators the important application is also as the source of the magnetic field in the development of the new magnetic cooling devices. .
Recent Publications :
- P.J. McGuiness, M. Soderžnik, S. Šturm, K. Žagar, S. Kobe et al. Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEOs) : a European seventh framework project to develop advanced permanent magnets without, or with reduced use of, critical raw materials. JOM, ISSN 1047-4838, 2015, vol. 67, issue 6, pp. 1306-1317.
- M. Soderžnik, M. Korent, K. Žagar, M. Katter, KATTER, Ü, Kaan, S. Kobe, High-coercivity Nd-Fe-B magnets obtained with the electrophoretic deposition of submicron TbF3 followed by the grain-boundary diffusion process. Acta materialia, ISSN 1359-6454. [Print ed.], 2016, vol. 115, pp. 278-284.
- K. Žagar, A. Kocjan, S. Kobe, Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd-Fe-B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, 2016, vol. 403, pp. 90-96.
- L. Kelhar, J. Zavašnik, P.J.McGuiness, S. Kobe, The impact of processing parameters on the properties of Zn-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnet. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, 2016, vol. 419, pp. 171-175.
- P. Jenuš, M. Topole, P.J. McGuiness, S. Kobe, K. Žužek, et al. Ferrite-based exchange-coupled hard-soft magnets fabricated by spark plasma sintering. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, 2016, vol. 99, iss. 6, pp.. 1927-1934.
Lunch Break 13:05-13:45 @ Traders Restaurant
- Track 1:Advanced Materials Engineering
Track 8:Materials Science and Engineering
Track 10:Emerging Areas of Materials Science
Tohoku University, Japan
Karolína M. Šišková
Palacký University in Olomouc, Czech Republic
Title: Interaction of nanoparticles with amino acids and a physiologically important model protein studied by spectroscopic techniques
Karolína M. Šišková has her expertise in nanoparticle synthesis, characterization, application and in vibrational spectroscopy. She published more than 40 papers as the main author or co-author in impacted scientific journals and presented more than 20 oral contributions and 8 posters on different nanomaterial and spectroscopic conferences and meetings. She graduated in physical chemistry from the Charles University in Prague and in INTER///BIO from the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, in 2006. In 2014, she was awarded the conferment of associate professor degree in physical chemistry. Her h-index is 15 and the number of citations 515 (without self-citations) according to the Web of Science on 20th December 2016. Coming back from her maternity leave in September 2016, she started to work at the Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Czech Republic.
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently the topic of interest of a bundle of research papers and proposals. There are persistent rumors about NPs toxicity and ecotoxicity, concerns about their increasing release into the environment and attempts to their risk assessment. Many researchers often test the impact of different kinds of NPs on cells, tissues, organs, and/or directly on whole organisms. However, in order to understand the possible NPs impacts it is necessary, in my opinion, at first to evaluate the interaction of NPs with one type of the basic units of all organisms and their cells, i.e. amino acids. Furthermore, it is important to elucidate whether and how can NPs affect the conformation of proteins (their secondary and tertiary structure). Only after gaining such information, the assessment of NPs toxicity and Eco toxicity could be meaningful. In this study, the interaction of synthesized and commercially available nanoparticles with selected amino acids and a physiologically important transmembrane protein, the sodium/potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) will be investigated by using several spectroscopic techniques. The sodium/potassium pump is an enzyme which is ubiquitous in all animal cells and its malfunctions are related to many diseases such as hypertension, diabetic neuropathies, renal failure, neurological disorders etc.
Recent Publications :
- Siskova KM, Vecerova R. et al. (2015) Revisiting spontaneous silver nanoparticle formation: a factor influencing the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration values? AIMS Environmental Science 2:607-622.
- Markova Z, Novak P. et al. (2014) Iron(II,III)polyphenol complex nanoparticles derived from green tea with remarkable ecotoxicological impact. ACS Sustainable Chemistry 2:1674-1680.
- Adegboyega NF, Sharma VK et al. (2014) Enhanced formation of silver nanoparticles in Ag+-NOM-iron(II,III) systems and antibacterial activity studies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:3228-3235.
- Sharma VK, Siskova KM et al. (2014) Organic-coated silver nanoparticles in biological and environmental conditions: fate, stability and toxicity. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 204:15-34.
5. Siskova KM, Machala L et al. (2013) Mixtures of L-amino acids as reaction medium for iron nanoparticles formation: the order of addition into ferrous salt solution matters. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14: 19452-49473.
Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Italy
Title: Kovacs effect and the relation between glasses, supercooled liquids and crystals
Francesco Aliotta has his main expertise in the field of Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In particular he is involved in the investigation of the collective processes emerging when a system is driven out of thermodynamic equilibrium condition. As a collateral activity he is involved in the development of instrumentation for material investigation. As an example, he was the leader of the Italian team which designed and built the energy selective neutron tomography device now installed at the IMAT beam line of ISIS (STFC, UK) and officially inaugurated on October 10, 2016. Actually he take the position of Research Director at IPCF-CNR, Messina, Italy.
We revisit Kovacs’ effect, which concerns the way the volume of a glass-forming liquid, originally driven out of equilibrium, changes with time while the system evolves towards a metastable state. The theoretical explanation of this phenomenon has attracted a deep interest even in recent years, because of its relation with some subtle aspects of the still elusive nature of the glass transition. In fact, even if there is a rather general consensus on the fact that what is experimentally observed on cooling is the dramatic effect produced by the dynamical arrest of slower degrees of freedom over the experimental time scale, it is not at all obvious whether this phenomenology can be justified by an underlying (possibly, high order) phase transition at a lower temperature. We show how the phenomenon investigated by Kovacs can be explained in terms of the relaxation undergone by slow motions, on a time scale comparable with the experimental time windows. The results from a simple model system, namely o-therphenyl, are compared with indications from other glass formers, including water. The mechanisms underlaying the formation of crystals (dendrites) when super cooled liquid escape metastability are also explored within the adopted perspective. The ability of a simple out-of-equilibrium approach in reproducing a wide class of phenomena related with the glass transition suggests the idea that the hypothesis of a thermodynamic phase transition should be reconsidered in favor of alternative scenarios.
Recent Publications :
- Aliotta F, Giaquinta PV, Ponterio RC, Prestipino S, Saija F, Salvato G, Vasi C (2014) Supercooled water escaping from metastability, Scientific Reports 4:7230.
- Aliotta F, Giaquinta PV, Pochylski M, Ponterio RC, Prestipino S, Saija F, Vasi C (2013), Volume crossover in deeply supercooled water adiabatically freezing under isobaric conditions, J. Chem. Phys. 138: 184504.
- Aliotta F, Gapinski J, Pochylski M, Ponterio RC, Saija F, Salvato G, Vasi C (2013), High-frequency propagating density fluctuations in deeply supercooled water: Evidence of a single viscous relaxation, Phys. Rev. E 87: 0220303.
- Aliotta F, Calandra P, Pochylski M, Ponterio RC Salvato G, Vasi C (2014), AIP Advances 4: 097105.
5. Aliotta F, Ponterio RC, Saija F, Giaquinta PV (2017), Kovacs effect and the relation between glasses and supercooled liquids, to appear on Many-body approaches at different scales : a tribute to N. H. March on the occasion of his 90th birthday, edited by Angilella GGN and , Amovilli C.
Ali Rakhshani is an educator and researcher working at Kuwait University (department of Physics). He obtained his PhD and MTech degrees in the field of Semiconductor Physics and Technology from Brunel University (UK) and BSc degree in Physics from Tehran University (Iran). He gained his postdoctoral research experience on photovoltaic devices in Wayne-State University (USA) and in Queensland University (Australia). His research expertise is in the field of thin film semiconductor materials and devices with orientation towards the synthesis of thin optoelectronic films and the fabrication of related devices. He and his collaborators are currently working on the development of solution-grown light absorber films for photovoltaic applications.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) compound semiconductors are promising absorber materials for thin film solar cells due to their intrinsic p-type conductivity, high optical absorption coefficient, and suitable band gap energy. Furthermore, these absorber films are composed from the abundant and non toxic elements. Among different techniques which can be used for the preparation of these two absorber layers, solution processed techniques are very attractive due to their simplicity and low cost advantages. Here, we report the results of our study on the co-electrodeposition of a Zn-rich precursor metallic alloy Cu-Zn-Sn film from a single water-based solution with a composition not previously reported. The precursor films were converted to CZTS and CZTSe by vapor phase sulfurization and selenization processes. The synthesized films were characterized for their surface morphology and structure by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Raman spectroscopy was employed for the identification of films and the detection of impurity phases which could exist. Photocurrent spectroscopy was used to measure the films optical transition energies, including the band gap energy. Heterojunction CdS/CZTS and CdS/CZTSe devices with the typical diode-type current-voltage characteristics could be prepared and their device parameters were evaluated. The results revealed that device-quality absorber films can be synthesized successfully by co-electrodeposition from a single bath solution used in this study.
Recent Publications :
- Rakhshani A E (2017) Charactrization and device applications of p-type ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter-deposited zinc oxynitride, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 695: 124-132
- Rakhshani A E (2016) Solution-grown near-stoichiometry
Cu2ZnSnS4 films: Optical transitions and defect levels, Journal of
Alloys and Compounds 675: 387-392.
- Rakhshani A E, Thomas S (2015) Cu2ZnSnS4 films grown on flexible
substrates by dip coating using a methanol-based solution:
electronic properties and devices, Journal of Electronic Materials
4. Rakhshani A E (2014) Visible light emission and UV light detection
properties of solution-grown ZnO/polymer heterojunction diodes
on stainless steel foil, Applied Surface Science 311: 614 – 620.
5. Rakhshani A E, Thomas S (2013) Nitrogen doping of ZnTe for the
preparation of ZnTe/ZnO light emitting diode, J. Mater. Sci. 48:
6386 – 6392.
Tohoku University, Japan
Title: Surface mechanics design of metallic materials by cavitation peening
Hitoshi Soyama is Professor of Department of Finemechanics at Tohoku University, Japan, He is a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME and a honorary member of Water Jet Technology Society of Japan. He is known for his work in the fields of cavitation and its practical applications such as water treatment and mechanical surface treatment, i.e., cavitation peening. Although cavitation impacts causes severe damage in hydraulic machineries, his research utilized cavitation impacts for enhancement of fatigue properties of metallic materials. He established evaluation methods using inverse analysis to investigate mechanical properties of surface modified layer. Now, he has been applied the evaluation methods to mechanical properties of products of additive manufacturing. He proposed additive manufacturing of laser melting using oxide iron on Mars and/or Moon. It was revealed that oxygen was obtained during the process
Cavitation normally causes damage in hydraulic machineries such as pumps and screw propellers, as severe impacts are produced at cavitation collapses. However, cavitation impacts can be utilized for surface mechanics design for improvement of fatigue strength in the same way of shot peening. The peening method using cavitation impacts is named as “cavitation peening”. The advantage of cavitation peening is that the increase of surface roughness is small comparing with conventional shot peening, as shots are not required in cavitation peening. In order to mitigate stress corrosion cracking, introduction of compressive residual using cavitation impact was proposed , and it has been applied for nuclear power plants . By enhancing cavitation impacts, improvement of fatigue strength was demonstrated -. Figure 1 shows the aspect of cavitation peening of gear by using a submerged water jet with cavitation, i.e., a cavitating jet. In order to investigate mechanism of improvement of fatigue strength, a special fatigue tester was developed to investigate crack propagation in surface modified layer . Cavitation peening also suppress hydrogen embrittlement . At laser peening, it is believed that impact caused by laser abrasion produces plastic deformation for surface treatment . However, a bubble is generated after laser abrasion, and it produces impact at bubble collapse like cavitation, then it can be called as laser cavitation . As shown in Fig. 2, when the impact passing through the material was measured, the impact induced by laser abrasion is larger than that of laser abrasion. Namely, at submerged laser peening, peening effect would be improved by considering the laser cavitation. In the presentation, the principal of cavitation peening is introduced with applications of cavitation peening such as improvement of fatigue strength and suppression of hydrogen embrittlement.
The work was partly supported by Osawa Scientific Studies Grants Foundation.
Recent Publications :
- Soyama H, Yamauchi Y, Ikohagi T, Oba R, Sato K, Shindo T, Oshima R (1996) Marked Peening Effects by Highspeed Submerged-Water-Jets - Residual Stress Change on SUS304, Jet Flow Engineering, 13 (1): 25-32.
- Saitou N, Enomoto K, Kurosawa K, Morinaka R, Hayashi E, Ishikwa T, Yoshimura T (2003) Development of Water Jet Peening Technique for Reactor Internal Components of Nuclear Power Plant, Jet Flow Engineering, 20 (1): 4-12.
- Soyama H, Kusaka T, Saka M (2001) Peening by the Use of Cavitation Impacts for the Improvement of Fatigue Strength, Journal of Materials Science Letters, 20: 1263-1265.
- Seki M, Soyama H, Fujii M., Yoshida A (2008) Rolling Contact Fatigue Life of Cavitation-Peened Steel Gear, Tribology Online, 3: 116-121.
- Soyama H, Sekine Y (2010) Sustainable Surface Modification Using Cavitation Impact for Enhancing Fatigue Strength Demonstrated by a Power Circulating-Type Gear Tester, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3: 25-32.
- Soyama H, Takeo F (2016) Comparison between Cavitation Peening and Shot Peening for Extending the Fatigue Life of a Duralumin Plate with a Hole, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 227: 80-87.
- Sato M, Takakuwa O, Nakai M, Niinomi M, Takeo F, Soyama H (2016) Using Cavitation Peening to Improve the Fatigue Life of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, Materials Sciences and Applications, 7: 181-191.
- Takakuwa O, Nakai M, Narita K, Niinomi M, Hasegawa K, Soyama H (2016) Enhancing the Durability of Spinal Implant Fixture Applications Made of Ti-6Al-4V ELI by Means of Cavitation Peening, International Journal of Fatigue, 92: 360-367.
- Soyama H (2014) Evaluation of Crack Initiation and Propagation of Stainless Steel Treated by Cavitating Peening Using a Load Controlled Plate Bending Fatigue Tester. Metal Finishing News, 15 (4): 60-62.
- Takakuwa O, Soyama H (2012) Suppression of Hydrogen-Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Cavitation Peening, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37: 5268-5276.
- Sasoh A, Watanabe K, Sano Y, Mukai N (2005) Behavior of Bubbles Induced by the Interaction of a Laser Pulse with a Metal Plate in Water, Applied Physics A, 80: 1497-1500.
- Soyama H, Sasaki H, Endo S, Iga Y (2015) Mechanical Surface Treatment of Duralumin Plate by Bubble Induced by Pulse Laser. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 656: 012108, 1-4.
University of Derby, United kingdom
Title: Fatigue Analysis of a failed connecting rod in race car engine
Dr. Klaudio Bari is a senior Lecturer at University of Derby. He has passion for fatigue in engine component, in particular race car, that endure stress, heat and corrosion environment at the same time. Stress crack corrosion is a complex subject and can be only understood after comprehensive analysis in term of using scanning electron microscope and particular mode (EBSD). In general, visual analysis can be helpful sometime, but often is misleading the fact and lead the investigator to wrong conculsion. Conserative approach in failure analysis is definitely his strong point in Engineering.
In the present work, a failed connecting rod from a motorcycle engine was investigated for the root cause of and possible mechanisms leading to its premature failure. In addition to finding the root cause, the expectation from this study was to possibly improve the existing designs or practices to avoid similar failures in future. These results were validated using a finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. A Scanning Electron Microscope was used for investigating the mechanisms of fracture modes, optical microscopy for studying the microstructures and visual inspection were primarily utilised to determine the root cause of the failure. In conclusion, it was determined that the root cause for the premature failure of the connecting rod was the presence of scale build-up inclusions, which led to micro cracking during fatigue loading of the component. It is most likely that the connecting rod failed on the end of exhaust stroke, due to the tensile force being at its highest, when the piston reaches TDC. This is due to the inertia of the piston, pin, and upper end of the connection rod moving upwards while there are no compressive forces to take them under consideration.
Recent Publications :
K. Bari, “Characterization of the porosity in TRISO coated fuel particles and its effect on the relative thermal diffusivity,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 265, pp. 668-674, 2013.
Uddeholm, Temperature guide for tempering steel, 2015.
S. MacKenzie, “Overview of the Mechanisms of Failure in Heat Treated Steel Components,” ASM International Failure Analysis of Heat Treated Steel Components, 2008.
P. Juvonen, “Effects of Non-Metallic Inclusions on Fatigue Properties of Calcium Treated Steels,” 2006.
M. ashby, “www.grantadesign.com,” Cambrige Engineering Selector. [Online]. [Accessed 10 04 2017].
A. Strozzi, A. Baldini, M. Giacopini, E. Bertocchi and S. Mantovani, “A repertoire of failures in connecting rods for internal combustion engines, and indications on traditional and advanced design methods,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 60, 2016.
S. Ishida, Y. Hori, T. Kinoshita and T. Iwamoto, “Development of technique to measure stress on connecting rod during firing operation.,” SAE Technical Paper 951797, pp. 1851-1856, 1995.
R. Celin, B. Arzensek and D. Kmetic, “A Metallographic Examination of a Fractured Connecting Rod,” Institute of Metals and Technology, 2007.
Tohoku University, Japan
Title: Crack / Damage Evaluation and Micro-Materials Fabrication in the Relation with Electric Field
Masumi Saka received his Bachelor of Engineering degree in 1977 and his Doctor of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1982, both from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. He became a Professor at Tohoku University in 1993. His research interests lie in the evaluation of materials system and the fabrication of metallic micro- and nano-materials. He is Editor of a book entitled “Metallic Micro and Nano Materials”.
Evaluation of materials subjected to electric current and Joule heating has been studied by many researchers and fruitful results have been reported. In my presentation, crack problems in a conductive material are first discussed. The path-independent integral for an electric crack problem in a plate subjected to current is explained with its relations to Joule heating near the crack tip and the increase in electric resistance of the plate due to a unit crack extension. Regarding nondestructive evaluation of cracks, highly sensitive direct current potential drop technique, that is closely coupled probes potential drop (CCPPD) technique, is explained with its principle and superior characteristics for evaluation of closed cracks. Also evaluation of multiple cracks is mentioned. In the second, a topic in the field of micro and nano materials evaluation is explained, which is a subject of electrical failure of a metallic nanowire mesh due to Joule heating. Characteristic nature of sequential melting of nanowires in the mesh is explained for respective conditions of current control and voltage control. Next, electro migration (EM) phenomenon, which is atomic diffusion due to electron flow in high density, in metallic thin-film materials related to reliability of integrated circuits is discussed, where the effect of passivation on damage suppression is focused. Finally, application of EM to fabrication of micro materials of wire and sphere is explained, where the effect of temperature caused by Joule heating on the shape of formed micro material is mentioned. In addition, a comparison of EM with the other phenomena of atomic diffusion such as stress migration and ionic migration is discussed from a few points of view. Electric current and Joule heating are connected with materials science and evaluation on many equipments, machines and structures. As written above, four topics related to these phenomena are reviewed in this presentation.
Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health, France
Title: Hydrogen production from water using the sun via photocatalytic processes on Au/g-C3N4/TiO2 materials
Valérie Keller is a senior scientist at ICPEES in Strasbourg. She received her Ph.D. degree in Chemistry and Catalysis from the University Louis Pasteur of Strasbourg in 1993. In 1996 she returned to Strasbourg and was appointed as researcher in CNRS, where she is now responsible of the Team “Photocatalysis and Photoconversion”. Her main research activities concern photocatalysis for environmental, energy and health applications, and the synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials for photoconversion purposes. She is the author of over 100 publications in peer-reviewed journals and more than 85 oral communications in international conferences and symposium. She is also the author of 15 patents. In 2013 she was awarded the 1st Price of the Strategic Reflection (awarded by the French prime Minister).
The direct conversion of solar energy through an energy carrier (fuel), storable and usable upon request, appears as an interesting alternative to find environmentally friendly ways to produce energy. Photocatalysis is a promising way to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Indeed, the water dissociation (water-splitting) highlighted by Fujishima and Honda in a photoelectrocatalytic cell opened a promising way to produce hydrogen from light energy. Since, many efforts have focused on the development of the water-dissociation in photoelectro- and photo- catalytic systems. Nowadays, one of the main challenges consist in the elaboration of semiconductor nanometarials able to absorb visible-light wavelengths, to transfer efficiently the photogenerated charges, while keeping high stability of their performances under UV activation. For that purpose, different strategies are studied: Synthesis of semiconductors with narrow band gaps, doping (cationic, anionic, co-doping) approaches of wide bang gap semiconductors, heterojunction formation between wide- and a narrow band gap semiconductors for solar light harvesting, deposition of metal nanoparticles inducing surface plasmon effects, use of different morphologies (1D, 2D, 3D) and assembly of semiconductors. Here, amongst these different approaches, we will focus on the elaboration of Au/gC3N4/TiO2 photocatalysts, in order to optimize the different functions of the composite materials: optimization of the synthesis of C3N4 (under different atmospheres) and TiO2 (influence of the morphology) semiconductors, high quality heterojunction formation, improved Au deposition leading to enhanced electron traps and co-catalyst properties and study of the SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) properties induced by Au NPs.
Networking and Refreshments Break 16:00-16:25 @Academy Breakout Lounge
Mayssa El Fare
Damietta University, Egypt
Title: Sculpture Art and Fashion Design
Maryssa Elfare.is expert in sculpture different materials Clay granite, polyester and Wood. Have different galleries on the level of faculty of applied arts and university and interested in fashion design.
For thousands of years sculpture has conducted many roles in human life. The Greeks made statues that depicted perfectly formed men and women with their beauty and elegant dresses. Early Christians decorated churches with acanthus leaves, where this Patten revealed a good motive and inspiration to the fashion designers. Egyptian artists used a wide array of materials, the lotus blossom caved on their temple and its pillars, so the fashion designers copied that sculpted to their dresses. For instance, already in the ancient Egyptian garments, it was decorated by repeating the pattern of lotus blossom. The beauty and elegance of the paisley leaf has inspired artists, architects and craftsmen for centuries since it was sculpted at the Persian age. Among fashion designs makers, printing this classic detail in their dresses. From the beginning of century until the present, sculpture has been largely a very inspirited monumental. In the 15th century, monuments to biblical heroes were built on the streets of Italian cities with their formal dress. The Italian fashion designer inspirited their fashions from the great fountain with acanthus.leaves sculpture in the centre of the cities. However its vary so greatly in style and shape where they are sometimes difficult to identify as an acanthus leaf.The beauty and elegance of the acanthus leaf has inspired artists, architects and craftsmen for centuries as shown on the US capital building.
Recent Publications :
- SchwartzD.http://bobvila.com/authors/donna-boyle Schwartz.
- The History of Sculpture from the New Book of Knowledge®
- http://byzantinearchitecture and acanthus leaves.https://quizlet.com/13750789/ap-art-history-greek-architecture-flash-cards
Nashwa El Shafey
Damietta University, Egypt
Title: Material Science and Fashion Design
Nashwa El Shafey (Prof.Dr.assestant) is expert in fashion design and has establishedSeveral fashion shows on
Technology is changing life so dramatically whilst globally, textiles represent the fourth largest manufacturing industry, with the apparel sector forming the most valuable component of this industry. Garment design is an integration of all the advanced design elements including colour, texture, space, lines, pattern, silhouette, shape, proportion, balance, emphasis or focal point, rhythm and harmony. The more advanced the technology involved, the more forward-thinking fashion will be. However the new technique of printing fabric digitally is to textiles as 3D printing as product manufacturing. The slow process of fabric printing designers is used to upgrading, allowing them to create things more quickly. Differently Style of Architecture- fashion paper-engineering inspired garments with folded fabric cut outs; 3D fashion. Different technology as material metaphor is the unifying theory of a rationalized space and a system of motion. The material is grounded in tactile reality, inspired by the study of paper and ink, revealed technologically advanced and open to imagination and magic. Austrian architect Julia Körner, who collaborated with Van Herpen on the digitally fabricated garments, into everyday clothing production as part of what she calls an "exciting moment in fashion design". Architecture Julia Körner created the advances in 3D scanning, modeling and printing as a revolution in customized fashion pieces within ready to wear The present research is focusing on designers who are introducing the advanced technological fashion world to new technologies where to cover our bodies for protection where it came before the desire to decorate ourselves fashionably, initially from the elements and eventually from each other in a fashionable trend .
Damietta University, Egypt
Title: Pressure Differences between the Human Micro Climates and the Environment Through Fabrics
one of the important variable in vapour transport investigation that it has not investigated physiologically by the skin vapour pressure or human microclimate pressure. It was found that most of textile fabrics have superior properties in moisture wicking ability, diffusely and evaporation ability. The physical properties of the fabric’s material and construction (structure & design) as well as the physical activities of the human body have been considered associated with the thermal properties of the fabrics. The four parameters of heat transfer such conduction, convection, radiation and vapour transfer diffusely through the garment have been considered. The fabric materials and construction comfort have been investigated by two compromised types of fabrics as such cotton and cotton blended polyester. The fabric investigated at three different phases as such dry moist and wet showed a very interested behaviour where the fabric at maximum holding water transfers 12 times the dried fabric. However, the most interested behaviour is demonstrated by the maximum water absorption of 80%RH followed by the 50% RH whilst the lowest heat transfer conducted by the 20%RH.The present research showed that the pressure difference between the skin pressure through the micro climate and the pressure of the ambient condition at wet phase has reached up to 5 times the dry condition. In this aspect, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the dynamic heat and moisture transport behaviour. Not only that but also it has shown regardless of type of fibres either synthetic or nature ,comfortability depend upon Thermal Effective Resistance Volume as a large factor influenced wearing regardless to the ability of fibres to absorb water .however it is also based on the pressure difference between the human micro climate and ambient condition
Recent Publications :
- Booth .J .E. Principle Textile Testing. CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd. (1996) ISBN 10: 8123905157
- G. Song (2011).Improving Comfort in Clothing. Wood head Publishing ISBN: 978-1-84569-539-2.
- N, Hequet E, Cabrales L, Gannaway J, Wilkins T, Wells .LW (2008) Evaluating cell wall structure and composition of developing cotton fibers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. J ApplPolymSci 107:476–486. doi:10.1002/app.27100.
- French AD, Goyner WR, Rouselle MS, Thibodeaux DP (2004).Cotton fiber and moisture-some of the basics. In: Proceedings of the national cotton council belt wide cotton conference, 5–9 Jan, San Antonio, TX, pp 2990–2994.
- Johan K. Westin.2008)An Improved Thermoregulatory Model for Cooling Garment Applications with Transient Metabolic Rates. University of Central Florida. ISBN .054995971
Chandigarh University, India
Title: Recent advances in polylactic acid based blends, composites and nanocomposites for packaging and barrier applications
Development of biodegradable materials is highly in demand as large and rapid usage of plastic materials results million tons of plastic wastes in the landfill sites each year globally. It takes a long time for conventional plastics to degrade, leading to severe ecological problems too. The production capacities of biodegradable plastics, such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates, and starch blends, are also growing steadily, nearly doubling from 0.7 million metric tons in 2014 to well over 1.2 million metric tons by 2019. PLA, for its good compatibility and biodegradability, is preferred by people from all sectors. Also, PLA is a low energy consumption product, about 30-50% lower in energy consumption than the petroleum-based polymers. PLA as the most widely used, the lowest price of bioplastic in industrialization, in the aspect of practicality, is the biodegradable material that has the largest scope to replace the position of the petroleum based plastics on the current scenario of oil scarcity. The production cost of PLA is also approaching the cost of traditional plastic, and with the strong expansion of market applications, will get soon recognized globally. PLA based nanocomposites are widely used today in various applications. The review article aims to target on the topical progresses in the synthesis and characterization of PLA blends, PLA composites and PLA nanocomposites with different materials. Moreover, this article is a unique collection of vital information about PLA based blends and composites for drug delivery, packaging and barrier applications in a single platform